Background: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is an accepted treatment of portal hypertension. Lower-extremity edema (LEE) is an underreported complication of TIPS creation. Purpose: To assess the epidemiologic findings of LEE after TIPS creation and their association with patient survival. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent TIPS creation between January 2003 and April 2019 at Oregon Health and Science University and patients who underwent TIPS creation between January 2006 and December 2016 at University of Minnesota were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, laboratory, and technical parameters, development and outcome of edema, and survival data were collected. LEE was defined as new-onset or worsened edema up to 1 year after TIPS creation. Cardiac ventricular function was evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography. Risk factors for LEE were evaluated with logistic regression analysis, and critical P values were additionally assessed by using the false discovery rate. Survival curves were compared by using the log-rank test. Results: Three hundred thirty-four patients were included (mean age, 55 years 6 11 [standard deviation]; 208 men). TIPS creation was primarily performed for ascites (159 of 334 patients, 48%), gastrointestinal bleeding (127 of 334 patients, 38%), or a combination of bleeding and ascites (38 of 334 patients, 11%). One hundred seventy of the 334 patients (51%) developed LEE (new onset, 120; worsened edema, 50). Three of 170 patients (2%) had abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariable analysis showed TIPS creation for ascites (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.7; P = .03) and hepatic hydrothorax (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.2; P = .02) was likely associated with LEE; however, it did not reach significance at a critical P value of .009. Among 164 patients with data on the outcome of LEE, LEE eventually improved in 94 (57%). The median survival of patients with LEE was lower than that of patients without LEE (38 months vs 71 months, respectively; P = .02). Conclusion: Lower-extremity edema developed in more than 50% of study patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation, regardless of left ventricular function. There was suggestion that TIPS creation for ascites might be an underlying risk factor. Lower-extremity edema portends worse survival.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging