PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term patency of self-expanding Z stents for treatment of benign central venous obstructions unrelated to dialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Z stents were placed in 19 patients, (ages 26-72 years) with severe symptomatic obstructions of the superior or inferior venae cavae and their large branches and portal vein caused by surgical or catheter injury (n = 8), fibrosis (n = 5), cirrhosis (n = 3), Budd-Chiari syndrome (n = 2), and extrinsic compression (n = 1). Fourteen patients underwent stent placement primarily, five after local urokinase infusion for superimposed thrombosis. Follow-up was performed with ultrasound and venography. RESULTS: Venous congestive symptoms quickly resolved in all patients after stent placement. The follow-up period was from 1 to 94 months. Twelve patients have died during follow-up from 1 to 37 months although all remained asymptomatic until death. Six patients remain alive, asymptomatic, with patent stents, and with follow-up from 24 to 94 months. Primary patency was 83%, and secondary patency was 100%. One patient with a patent stent at 12 months was lost to follow-up. No stent migrations, perforations, infections, or significant complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Benign central venous obstructions are effectively treated by the placement of self-expandable Z stents. Placed percutaneously into obstructive lesions with a minimum risk, these stents offer long-term durability and patency.
- Stents and prostheses
- Veins, central
- Venae cavae, stenosis or obstruction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine