Long-Term Outcomes From Repeated Smoking Cessation Assistance in Routine Primary Care

Steffani R. Bailey, Victor J. Stevens, Stephen P. Fortmann, Stephen Kurtz, Mary Ann McBurnie, Elisa Priest, Jon Puro, Leif I. Solberg, Rebecca Schweitzer, Andrew L. Masica, Brian Hazlehurst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose: To test the association between repeated clinical smoking cessation support and long-term cessation. Design: Retrospective, observational cohort study using structured and free-text data from electronic health records. Setting: Six diverse health systems in the United States. Participants: Patients aged ≥18 years who were smokers in 2007 and had ≥1 primary care visit in each of the following 4 years (N = 33 691). Measures: Primary exposure was a composite categorical variable (comprised of documentation of smoking cessation medication, counseling, or referral) classifying the proportions of visits for which patients received any cessation assistance (<25% (reference), 25%-49%, 50%-74%, and ≥75% of visits). The dependent variable was long-term quit (LTQ; yes/no), defined as no indication of being a current smoker for ≥365 days following a visit where nonsmoker or former smoker was indicated. Analysis: Mixed effects logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, race, and comorbidities, with robust standard error estimation to account for within site correlation. Results: Overall, 20% of the cohort achieved LTQ status. Patients with ≥75% of visits with any assistance had almost 3 times the odds of achieving LTQ status compared to those with <25% visits with assistance (odds ratio = 2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.50-5.37). Results were similar for specific assistance types. Conclusions: These findings provide support for the importance of repeated assistance at primary care visits to increase long-term smoking cessation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1582-1590
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018


  • electronic health records
  • long-term quit
  • primary care
  • smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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