Background Mixed hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) have been associated with a poor prognosis after liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to evaluate long-term outcomes in patients undergoing LT for HCC-CC versus patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Methods Retrospective analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database from 1994–2013. Overall survival (OS) in patients with HCC-CC, HCC, and CC, were compared. Results We identified 4049 patients transplanted for primary malignancy (94 HCC-CC; 3515 HCC; 440 CC). Mean age of patients with HCC-CC was 57 ± 10 years, and 77% were male. MELD score did not differ among the groups (p = 0.637). Hepatitis C virus was the most common secondary diagnosis within the HCC-CC (44%) and HCC (36%) cohorts, with primary sclerosing cholangitis in the CC (16%) cohort. OS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years for HCC-CC (82%, 47%, 40%) were similar to CC (79%, 58%, 47%), but significantly worse than HCC (86%, 72%, and 62% p = 0.002). Discussion Patients undergoing LT for HCC had significantly better survival compared to those transplanted for HCC-CC and CC. LT for mixed HCC-CC confers a survival rate similar to selected patients with CC. Efforts should be made to identify HCC-CC patients preoperatively.
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