PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Local therapeutics play an important role in the management of infectious and noninfectious uveitis (NIU) as well as certain masquerade syndromes. This review highlights the established therapeutics and those under investigation for the management of uveitis. RECENT FINDINGS: An injectable long-acting fluocinolone acetonide insert was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of NIU affecting the posterior segment. Intravitreal methotrexate, sirolimus, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are being evaluated for efficacy in NIU. Intravitreal foscarnet and ganciclovir are important adjuncts in the treatment of viral retinitis as are methotrexate and rituximab for the management of vitreoretinal lymphoma. SUMMARY: Local injectable steroids with greater durability are now available for NIU but comparative efficacy to other treatment modalities remains to be determined. Local steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are undergoing evaluation for efficacy in NIU as are anti-VEGF agents for uveitic macular edema. Local antivirals may improve outcomes in cases of viral retinitis. Local chemotherapeutics can help induce remission in vitreoretinal lymphoma.
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