Light-emitting diode beam profile and spectral output influence on the degree of conversion of bulk fill composites

M. G. Rocha, D. C.R.S. De Oliveira, I. C. Correa, L. Correr-Sobrinho, M. A.C. Sinhoreti, J. L. Ferracane, A. B. Correr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate the beam profile and the spectral output of monowave and polywave light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and their influence on the degree of conversion (DC) of bulk fill composites. Methods: A monowave LED (Smartlite Focus, Dentsply) and a polywave LED (Valo Cordless, Ultradent) were characterized using a resin calibrator and a laser beam profile analyzer. Two bulk fill composites, Sonic Fill 2 (SF) containing camphorquinone (CQ) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEB) containing CQ associated with alternative photoinitiators, were placed in custom-designed molds (n=3) and photoactivated by the monowave or polywave LED with 20 J/cm2. To map the DC, longitudinal cross sections (0.5 mm thick) from the center of the restoration were evaluated using FT-NIR microscopy. SF and TEB light transmittances (n=3) through 4-mm-thick specimens were evaluated during curing. Data were analyzed using a split-plot analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05; β=0.2). Results: The monowave LED had a radiant emittance of 20 6 0.5 J/cm2 over 420-495 nm, andthe polywaveLEDhad an emittance of 15.56 0.4 J/cm2 over 420-495 nm and of 4.5 ± 0.2 J/cm2 over 380-420 nm. The total radiant exposure at the bottom of TEB was 2.2 ± 0.2 J/cm2 with the monowave LED and 1.6 ± 0.3 J/cm2 with the polywave LED, and for SF it was 0.4 ± 0.1 J/cm2 for both LEDs. There were no differences in the curing profiles produced either by the monowave or the polywave LED (p=0.9), according to the regions under influence of blue and/or violet emission at the same depth. There was no statistical difference in the DC for SF using the monowave or polywave LED at any depth (p=0.29). TEB had a higher DC at up to 2 mm in depth when the polywave LED was used (p≤0.004), but no differences were found when starting at 2.5 mm. Conclusions: Monowave and polywave LEDs emitted nonhomogeneous light beams, but this did not affect the DC homogeneity of bulk fill composites. For composites containing CQ associated with alternative photoinitiators, polywave LEDs had a higher DC, but only at the top part of the restoration; lower wavelength absorption photoinitiators were ineffective in deeper areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)418-427
Number of pages10
JournalOperative dentistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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