BACKGROUND: A recently published study has reported that donor-recipient Rhesus (Rh)-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation independently led to significantly poorer survival. This suggests that donor-recipient Rh mismatching is a risk factor in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and should be a criterion for donor selection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To further evaluate this issue, 258 consecutive patients who underwent myeloablative or submyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution were analyzed to determine the association between the Rh mismatch pattern and 5-year actuarial survival. Secondary endpoints analyzed were the association of donor-recipient Rh mismatch and event-free survival, transplant-related mortality, incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and incidence of chronic GVHD. RESULTS: In our analysis, there were no significant associations between donor-recipient Rh mismatch pattern and overall survival, event-free survival, transplant-related mortality, incidence of acute GVHD, or incidence of chronic GVHD. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, the donor-recipient Rh mismatch pattern was not independently predictive of overall survival. CONCLUSION: Donor-recipient Rh mismatch is not a risk factor in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and does not affect transplant outcomes.
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