Kinetics of viral loads and genotypic analysis of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 infection in captive asian elephants (Elephas Maximus)

Jeffrey J. Stanton, Jian Chao Zong, Crystal Eng, Lauren Howard, Joe Flanagan, Martina Stevens, Dennis Schmitt, Ellen Wiedner, Danielle Graham, Randall E. Junge, Martha A. Weber, Martha Fischer, Alicia Mejia, Jie Tan, Erin Latimer, Alan Herron, Gary S. Hayward, Paul D. Ling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3-8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7-21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-54
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • EEHV
  • Elephant
  • Proboscivirus
  • herpesvirus
  • real-time polymerase chain reaction
  • viral load

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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