The transmembrane ubiquitin ligase K5/MIR2 of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) mediates internalization and lysosomal degradation of glycoproteins involved in antigen presentation and costimulation. In endothelial cells (ECs), K5 additionally reduced expression of CD31/platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), an adhesion molecule regulating cell-cell interactions of ECs, platelets, monocytes, and T cells. K5 also reduced EC migration, a CD31-dependent process. Unlike other K5 substrates, both newly synthesized and pre-existing CD31 molecules were targeted by K5. K5 was transported to the cell surface and ubiquitinated pre-existing CD31, resulting in endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. In the endoplasmic reticulum, newly synthesized CD31 was degraded by proteasomes, which required binding of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2 (PACS-2) to acidic residues in the carboxyterminal tail of K5. Thus, CD31, a novel target of K5, is efficiently removed from ECs by a dual degradation mechanism that is regulated by the subcellular sorting of the ubiquitin ligase. K5-mediated degradation of CD31 is likely to affect EC function in KS tumors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology