Kβ Valence to Core X-ray Emission Studies of Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Mixed Methionine - Histidine Coordination. Relevance to the Reactivity of the M- and H-sites of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase

Vlad Martin-Diaconescu, Kelly N. Chacón, Mario Ulises Delgado-Jaime, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Tsu Chien Weng, Serena DeBeer, Ninian Blackburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Biological systems use copper as a redox center in many metalloproteins, where the role of the metal is to cycle between its +1 and +2 oxidation states. This chemistry requires the redox potential to be in a range that can stabilize both Cu(I) and Cu(II) states and often involves protein-derived ligand sets involving mixed histidine-methionine coordination that balance the preferences of both oxidation states. Transport proteins, on the other hand, utilize copper in the Cu(I) state and often contain sites comprised predominately of the cuprophilic residue methionine. The electronic factors that allow enzymes and transporters to balance their redox requirements are complex and are often elusive due to the dearth of spectroscopic probes of the Cu(I) state. Here we present the novel application of X-ray emission spectroscopy to copper proteins via a study of a series of mixed His-Met copper sites where the ligand set varies in a systematic way between the His3 and Met3 limits. The sites are derived from the wild-type peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), two single-site variants which replicate each of its two copper sites (CuM-site and CuH-site), and the transporters CusF and CusB. Clear differences are observed in the Kβ2,5 region at the Met3 and His3 limits. CusB (Met3) has a distinct peak at 8978.4 eV with a broad shoulder at 8975.6 eV, whereas CuH (His3) has two well-resolved features: a more intense feature at 8974.8 eV and a second at 8977.2 eV. The mixed coordination sphere CusF (Met2His) and the PHM CuM variant (Met1His2) have very similar spectra consisting of two features at 8975.2 and 8977.8 eV. An analysis of DFT calculated spectra indicate that the intensity of the higher energy peak near 8978 eV is mediated by mixing of ligand-based orbitals into the Cu d10 manifold, with S from Met providing more intensity by facilitating increased Cu p-d mixing. Furthermore, reaction of WT PHM with CO (an oxygen analogue) produced the M site CO complex, which showed a unique XES spectrum that could be computationally reproduced by including interactions between Cu(I) and the CO ligand. The study suggests that the valence-to-core (VtC) region can not only serve as a probe of ligand speciation but also offer insight into the coordination geometry, in a fashion similar to XAS pre-edges, and may be sufficiently sensitive to the coordination of exogenous ligands to be useful in the study of reaction mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3431-3439
Number of pages9
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume55
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 18 2016

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methionine
histidine
Histidine
Methionine
Carrier Proteins
reactivity
Copper
Ligands
proteins
valence
X rays
ligands
copper
Carbon Monoxide
transporter
x rays
Metalloproteins
Oxidation
oxidation
probes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

Kβ Valence to Core X-ray Emission Studies of Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Mixed Methionine - Histidine Coordination. Relevance to the Reactivity of the M- and H-sites of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase. / Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Chacón, Kelly N.; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu Chien; DeBeer, Serena; Blackburn, Ninian.

In: Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 7, 18.04.2016, p. 3431-3439.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad ; Chacón, Kelly N. ; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises ; Sokaras, Dimosthenis ; Weng, Tsu Chien ; DeBeer, Serena ; Blackburn, Ninian. / Kβ Valence to Core X-ray Emission Studies of Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Mixed Methionine - Histidine Coordination. Relevance to the Reactivity of the M- and H-sites of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase. In: Inorganic Chemistry. 2016 ; Vol. 55, No. 7. pp. 3431-3439.
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abstract = "Biological systems use copper as a redox center in many metalloproteins, where the role of the metal is to cycle between its +1 and +2 oxidation states. This chemistry requires the redox potential to be in a range that can stabilize both Cu(I) and Cu(II) states and often involves protein-derived ligand sets involving mixed histidine-methionine coordination that balance the preferences of both oxidation states. Transport proteins, on the other hand, utilize copper in the Cu(I) state and often contain sites comprised predominately of the cuprophilic residue methionine. The electronic factors that allow enzymes and transporters to balance their redox requirements are complex and are often elusive due to the dearth of spectroscopic probes of the Cu(I) state. Here we present the novel application of X-ray emission spectroscopy to copper proteins via a study of a series of mixed His-Met copper sites where the ligand set varies in a systematic way between the His3 and Met3 limits. The sites are derived from the wild-type peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), two single-site variants which replicate each of its two copper sites (CuM-site and CuH-site), and the transporters CusF and CusB. Clear differences are observed in the Kβ2,5 region at the Met3 and His3 limits. CusB (Met3) has a distinct peak at 8978.4 eV with a broad shoulder at 8975.6 eV, whereas CuH (His3) has two well-resolved features: a more intense feature at 8974.8 eV and a second at 8977.2 eV. The mixed coordination sphere CusF (Met2His) and the PHM CuM variant (Met1His2) have very similar spectra consisting of two features at 8975.2 and 8977.8 eV. An analysis of DFT calculated spectra indicate that the intensity of the higher energy peak near 8978 eV is mediated by mixing of ligand-based orbitals into the Cu d10 manifold, with S from Met providing more intensity by facilitating increased Cu p-d mixing. Furthermore, reaction of WT PHM with CO (an oxygen analogue) produced the M site CO complex, which showed a unique XES spectrum that could be computationally reproduced by including interactions between Cu(I) and the CO ligand. The study suggests that the valence-to-core (VtC) region can not only serve as a probe of ligand speciation but also offer insight into the coordination geometry, in a fashion similar to XAS pre-edges, and may be sufficiently sensitive to the coordination of exogenous ligands to be useful in the study of reaction mechanisms.",
author = "Vlad Martin-Diaconescu and Chac{\'o}n, {Kelly N.} and Delgado-Jaime, {Mario Ulises} and Dimosthenis Sokaras and Weng, {Tsu Chien} and Serena DeBeer and Ninian Blackburn",
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T1 - Kβ Valence to Core X-ray Emission Studies of Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Mixed Methionine - Histidine Coordination. Relevance to the Reactivity of the M- and H-sites of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase

AU - Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad

AU - Chacón, Kelly N.

AU - Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises

AU - Sokaras, Dimosthenis

AU - Weng, Tsu Chien

AU - DeBeer, Serena

AU - Blackburn, Ninian

PY - 2016/4/18

Y1 - 2016/4/18

N2 - Biological systems use copper as a redox center in many metalloproteins, where the role of the metal is to cycle between its +1 and +2 oxidation states. This chemistry requires the redox potential to be in a range that can stabilize both Cu(I) and Cu(II) states and often involves protein-derived ligand sets involving mixed histidine-methionine coordination that balance the preferences of both oxidation states. Transport proteins, on the other hand, utilize copper in the Cu(I) state and often contain sites comprised predominately of the cuprophilic residue methionine. The electronic factors that allow enzymes and transporters to balance their redox requirements are complex and are often elusive due to the dearth of spectroscopic probes of the Cu(I) state. Here we present the novel application of X-ray emission spectroscopy to copper proteins via a study of a series of mixed His-Met copper sites where the ligand set varies in a systematic way between the His3 and Met3 limits. The sites are derived from the wild-type peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), two single-site variants which replicate each of its two copper sites (CuM-site and CuH-site), and the transporters CusF and CusB. Clear differences are observed in the Kβ2,5 region at the Met3 and His3 limits. CusB (Met3) has a distinct peak at 8978.4 eV with a broad shoulder at 8975.6 eV, whereas CuH (His3) has two well-resolved features: a more intense feature at 8974.8 eV and a second at 8977.2 eV. The mixed coordination sphere CusF (Met2His) and the PHM CuM variant (Met1His2) have very similar spectra consisting of two features at 8975.2 and 8977.8 eV. An analysis of DFT calculated spectra indicate that the intensity of the higher energy peak near 8978 eV is mediated by mixing of ligand-based orbitals into the Cu d10 manifold, with S from Met providing more intensity by facilitating increased Cu p-d mixing. Furthermore, reaction of WT PHM with CO (an oxygen analogue) produced the M site CO complex, which showed a unique XES spectrum that could be computationally reproduced by including interactions between Cu(I) and the CO ligand. The study suggests that the valence-to-core (VtC) region can not only serve as a probe of ligand speciation but also offer insight into the coordination geometry, in a fashion similar to XAS pre-edges, and may be sufficiently sensitive to the coordination of exogenous ligands to be useful in the study of reaction mechanisms.

AB - Biological systems use copper as a redox center in many metalloproteins, where the role of the metal is to cycle between its +1 and +2 oxidation states. This chemistry requires the redox potential to be in a range that can stabilize both Cu(I) and Cu(II) states and often involves protein-derived ligand sets involving mixed histidine-methionine coordination that balance the preferences of both oxidation states. Transport proteins, on the other hand, utilize copper in the Cu(I) state and often contain sites comprised predominately of the cuprophilic residue methionine. The electronic factors that allow enzymes and transporters to balance their redox requirements are complex and are often elusive due to the dearth of spectroscopic probes of the Cu(I) state. Here we present the novel application of X-ray emission spectroscopy to copper proteins via a study of a series of mixed His-Met copper sites where the ligand set varies in a systematic way between the His3 and Met3 limits. The sites are derived from the wild-type peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), two single-site variants which replicate each of its two copper sites (CuM-site and CuH-site), and the transporters CusF and CusB. Clear differences are observed in the Kβ2,5 region at the Met3 and His3 limits. CusB (Met3) has a distinct peak at 8978.4 eV with a broad shoulder at 8975.6 eV, whereas CuH (His3) has two well-resolved features: a more intense feature at 8974.8 eV and a second at 8977.2 eV. The mixed coordination sphere CusF (Met2His) and the PHM CuM variant (Met1His2) have very similar spectra consisting of two features at 8975.2 and 8977.8 eV. An analysis of DFT calculated spectra indicate that the intensity of the higher energy peak near 8978 eV is mediated by mixing of ligand-based orbitals into the Cu d10 manifold, with S from Met providing more intensity by facilitating increased Cu p-d mixing. Furthermore, reaction of WT PHM with CO (an oxygen analogue) produced the M site CO complex, which showed a unique XES spectrum that could be computationally reproduced by including interactions between Cu(I) and the CO ligand. The study suggests that the valence-to-core (VtC) region can not only serve as a probe of ligand speciation but also offer insight into the coordination geometry, in a fashion similar to XAS pre-edges, and may be sufficiently sensitive to the coordination of exogenous ligands to be useful in the study of reaction mechanisms.

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