Juvenile xanthogranuloma: A clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical study

Omar P. Sangüeza, Julie K. Salmon, Clifton R. White, Jay H. Beckstead

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXC) is a benign histiocylic proliferation of uncertain histogenesis which usually resolves spontaneously. Histopathologically, classic lesions are characterized by diffuse proliferations of foamy histiocytes, many of which may be multinucleated (Toulon cells), admixed with lymphocytes and eosinophils. Histologic variants of JXG, perhaps representing evolving lesions, may lack these typical histopathological features, showing diffuse infiltrates of non‐foamy mononuclear histiocytes without Toulon cells, posing problems in differentiation from other histiocylic or melanocylic proliferations. Immunohistochemically, JXG is characterized by variable expressions of several histiocytic markers as well as the absence of staining for SI00 protein. To assess better the spectrum of histopathological and immunohistochemical features of JXG, we studied nine cases of classic or histologic variant of JXG. The cases were evaluated by light microscopy and with an extensive battery of antibodies. All 9 cases, regardless of their light microscopic appearance, showed markedly positive staining with histiocytic markers including CD68, HAM56, cathepsin B and vimentin, but did not stain for S100 protein. Antibodies to factor XIIIa stained positively in 8 cases while staining for other markers was variable. Our results suggest that the histiocytes in JXG lesions have macrophagic differentiation, probably representing a reactive process to an unknown stimulus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-335
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of cutaneous pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Dermatology


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