Joint technical report - Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision

Sheryl M. Handler, Walter M. Fierson, James B. Ruben, David B. Granet, Richard J. Blocker, Geoffrey E. Bradford, Daniel Karr, Gregg T. Lueder, Sharon S. Lehman, Sebastian J. Troia, Nancy A. Murphy, Richard C. Adams, Robert T. Burke, Sandra L. Friedman, Miriam A. Kalichman, Susan E. Levy, Gregory S. Liptak, Douglas McNeal, Kenneth W. Norwood, Renee M. Turchi & 1 others Susan E. Wiley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These dif-ficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses, prisms, and colored lenses and filters are effective direct or indirect treatments for learning disabilities. There is no valid evidence that children who participate in vision therapy are more responsive to educational instruction than children who do not participate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPediatrics
Volume127
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dyslexia
Learning Disorders
Joints
Reading
Language
Therapeutics
Exercise
Language Disorders
Vocabulary
Intelligence
Automatic Data Processing
Lenses
Glass
Referral and Consultation
Muscles
Brain

Keywords

  • Dyslexia
  • Eye examination
  • Learning disabilities
  • Ophthalmology
  • Vision
  • Vision therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Handler, S. M., Fierson, W. M., Ruben, J. B., Granet, D. B., Blocker, R. J., Bradford, G. E., ... Wiley, S. E. (2011). Joint technical report - Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics, 127(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3670

Joint technical report - Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. / Handler, Sheryl M.; Fierson, Walter M.; Ruben, James B.; Granet, David B.; Blocker, Richard J.; Bradford, Geoffrey E.; Karr, Daniel; Lueder, Gregg T.; Lehman, Sharon S.; Troia, Sebastian J.; Murphy, Nancy A.; Adams, Richard C.; Burke, Robert T.; Friedman, Sandra L.; Kalichman, Miriam A.; Levy, Susan E.; Liptak, Gregory S.; McNeal, Douglas; Norwood, Kenneth W.; Turchi, Renee M.; Wiley, Susan E.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 127, No. 3, 03.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Handler, SM, Fierson, WM, Ruben, JB, Granet, DB, Blocker, RJ, Bradford, GE, Karr, D, Lueder, GT, Lehman, SS, Troia, SJ, Murphy, NA, Adams, RC, Burke, RT, Friedman, SL, Kalichman, MA, Levy, SE, Liptak, GS, McNeal, D, Norwood, KW, Turchi, RM & Wiley, SE 2011, 'Joint technical report - Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision', Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3670
Handler SM, Fierson WM, Ruben JB, Granet DB, Blocker RJ, Bradford GE et al. Joint technical report - Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3670
Handler, Sheryl M. ; Fierson, Walter M. ; Ruben, James B. ; Granet, David B. ; Blocker, Richard J. ; Bradford, Geoffrey E. ; Karr, Daniel ; Lueder, Gregg T. ; Lehman, Sharon S. ; Troia, Sebastian J. ; Murphy, Nancy A. ; Adams, Richard C. ; Burke, Robert T. ; Friedman, Sandra L. ; Kalichman, Miriam A. ; Levy, Susan E. ; Liptak, Gregory S. ; McNeal, Douglas ; Norwood, Kenneth W. ; Turchi, Renee M. ; Wiley, Susan E. / Joint technical report - Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. In: Pediatrics. 2011 ; Vol. 127, No. 3.
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