Background: Single institution reports demonstrate variable safety profiles when liver-directed therapy with Yttrium-90 (Y-90) is followed by hepatectomy. We hypothesized that in well-selected patients, hepatectomy after Y90 is feasible and safe. Methods: Nine institutions contributed data for patients undergoing Y90 followed by hepatectomy (2008–2017). Clinicopathologic and perioperative data were analyzed, with 90-day morbidity and mortality as primary endpoints. Results: Forty-seven patients were included. Median age was 59 (20–75) and 62% were male. Malignancies treated included hepatocellular cancer (n = 14; 30%), colorectal cancer (n = 11; 23%), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 8; 17%), neuroendocrine (n = 8; 17%) and other tumors (n = 6). The distribution of Y-90 treatment was: right (n = 30; 64%), bilobar (n = 14; 30%), and left (n = 3; 6%). Median future liver remnant (FLR) following Y90 was 44% (30–78). Resections were primarily right (n = 16; 34%) and extended right (n = 14; 30%) hepatectomies. The median time to resection from Y90 was 196 days (13–947). The 90-day complication rate was 43% and mortality was 2%. Risk factors for Clavien-Dindo Grade>3 complications included: number of Y-90-treated lobes (OR 4.5; 95% CI1.14–17.7; p = 0.03), extent of surgery (p = 0.04) and operative time (p = 0.009). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that hepatectomy following Y-90 is safe in well-selected populations. This multi-disciplinary treatment paradigm should be more widely studied, and potentially adopted, for patients with inadequate FLR.
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