Ion Channels of the Islets in Type 2 Diabetes

David A. Jacobson, Show Ling Shyng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ca2+ is an essential signal for pancreatic β-cell function. Ca2+ plays critical roles in numerous β-cell pathways such as insulin secretion, transcription, metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum function, and the stress response. Therefore, β-cell Ca2+ handling is tightly controlled. At the plasma membrane, Ca2+ entry primarily occurs through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity is dependent on orchestrated fluctuations in the plasma membrane potential or voltage, which are mediated via the activity of many ion channels. During the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes the β-cell is exposed to stressful conditions, which result in alterations of Ca2+ handling. Some of the changes in β-cell Ca2+ handling that occur under stress result from perturbations in ion channel activity, expression or localization. Defective Ca2+ signaling in the diabetic β-cell alters function, limits insulin secretion and exacerbates hyperglycemia. In this review, we focus on the β-cell ion channels that control Ca2+ handling and how they impact β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1326-1346
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of molecular biology
Volume432
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 6 2020

Keywords

  • calcium
  • glucagon
  • glucose
  • insulin
  • β-cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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