The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) has been postulated to play a role in modulation of hemodynamic function in diabetes and to contribute to the hemodynamic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (CEI). To further explore the KKS and its interactions with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), studies were conducted in nondiabetic control rats and in moderately hyperglycemic diabetic rats. In protocol 1, control and diabetic rats were studied before and after administration of one of two dissimilar B2 kinin receptor antagonists (BK2As), or vehicle. At a low dose (0.5 μg · kg-1 · min-1), the first generation antagonist D- Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-bradykinin significantly reduced the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow rate in diabetic rats, despite variable effectiveness in blocking the hypotensive response to injected bradykinin. However, a similar hemodynamic effect occurred in nondiabetic rats, suggesting that the observed effect was not specific to diabetes. Higher doses (20 μg bolus, then 1 μg · kg-1 · min-1 infusion) did not affect hemodynamics in either group, perhaps because of partial agonist effect. The second BK2A tested was the newer compound, icatibant (Hoe 140; D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-bradykinin). Hoe 140 consistently blocked the vasodepressor action of injected bradykinin, but had no effect on systemic or renal hemodynamics in either control or diabetic rats. In protocol 2, control and diabetic rats were pretreated with the CEI ramipril for 1-2 weeks, after which renal function was studied before and after Hoe 140 (0.1 mg s.c. and i.v.) or vehicle. CEI lowered blood pressure in both groups. Hoe 140 did not affect renal function in control rats, but in diabetic rats pretreated with ramipril, it induced a modest but significant decline in GFR. Ramipril induced the predicted changes in the systemic and intrarenal RAS, while acute BK2A had no consistent effect on RAS parameters. These studies suggest that the endogenous KKS has only a minor role in modulation of renal hemodynamics in the euvolemic diabetic rat, in the absence of KKS stimulation by CEI. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme is also kininase II, which serves to increase endogenous kinin activity. The increased kinin activity resulting from CEI treatment may participate, to a modest degree, in hemodynamic regulation of the diabetic kidney.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism