Most human health risk assessments are based on animal studies that can be conducted under conditions where exposure to multiple doses of a single chemical can be controlled. Data from epidemiology studies also provide valuable information about human exposure and response to pesticides. Human studies have the potential of evaluating neurobehavioral and other outcomes that may be more difficult to evaluate in animals. The human data together with animal data can contribute to a weight-of-evidence analysis in the characterization of human health risks. Epidemiology data do, however, pose challenges with respect to characterizing human health risks. Similarly, animal data at high doses or routes of exposure not typical for humans also pose challenges to dose-response evaluations needed for risk assessments. This paper summarizes some of the presentations given at a symposium held at the Xi'an, China, International Neurotoxicology Conference held in June 2011. This symposium brought together scientists from government, industry and academia to discuss approaches to evaluating and conducting animal and human neurotoxicity studies for risk assessment purposes, using the pesticides paraquat and chlorpyrifos as case studies.
- Risk assessment
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