Initial constructs for patient-centered outcome measures to evaluate brain–computer interfaces

Elena M. Andresen, Melanie Fried-Oken, Betts Peters, Donald L. Patrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: The authors describe preliminary work toward the creation of patient-centered outcome (PCO) measures to evaluate brain–computer interface (BCI) as an assistive technology (AT) for individuals with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI). Method: In Phase 1, 591 items from 15 existing measures were mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In Phase 2, qualitative interviews were conducted with eight people with SSPI and seven caregivers. Resulting text data were coded in an iterative analysis. Results: Most items (79%) were mapped to the ICF environmental domain; over half (53%) were mapped to more than one domain. The ICF framework was well suited for mapping items related to body functions and structures, but less so for items in other areas, including personal factors. Two constructs emerged from qualitative data: quality of life (QOL) and AT. Component domains and themes were identified for each. Conclusions: Preliminary constructs, domains and themes were generated for future PCO measures relevant to BCI. Existing instruments are sufficient for initial items but do not adequately match the values of people with SSPI and their caregivers. Field methods for interviewing people with SSPI were successful, and support the inclusion of these individuals in PCO research.Implications for Rehabilitation Adapted interview methods allow people with severe speech and physical impairments to participate in patient-centered outcomes research. Patient-centered outcome measures are needed to evaluate the clinical implementation of brain–computer interface as an assistive technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)548-557
Number of pages10
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2 2016



  • Augmentative and alternative communication
  • communication disorders
  • quality of life
  • severe speech and physical impairments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation
  • Speech and Hearing

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