Induction of substrate specificity shifts by placement of alanine insertions within the consensus amphipathic region of the Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) transporter encoded by gabP

Steven King, Liaoyuan A. Hu, Amy Pugh

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8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) permease GabP is a prototypical APC (amine/polyamine/choline) superfamily transporter that has a CAR (consensus amphipathic region) containing multiple specificity determinants, ostensibly organized on two helical surfaces, one hydrophobic [SHS (sensitive hydrophobic surface)] and the other hydrophilic [SPS (sensitive polar surface)]. To gauge the functional effects of placing alanine insertions at close intervals across the entire GabP CAR, 64 insertion variants were constructed. Insertions, particularly those in the SHS and the SPS, were highly detrimental to steady-state [3H]GABA accumulation. TSR (transport specificity ratio) analysis, employing [3H]nipecotic acid and [ 14C]GABA, showed that certain alanine insertions were associated with a specificity shift (i.e. a change in kcat/Km). An insertion (INS Ala-269) located N-terminal to the SHS increased specificity for [3H]nipecotic acid relative to [14C]GABA, whereas an insertion (INS Ala-321) located C-terminal to the SPS had the opposite effect. Overall, the results are consistent with a working hypothesis that the GabP CAR contains extensive functional surfaces that may be manipulated by insertion mutagenesis to alter the specificity (kcat/ Km) phenotype. The thermodynamic basis of TSR analysis provides generality, suggesting that amino acid insertions could affect specificity in many other transporters, particularly those such as the E. coli phenylalanine permease PheP [Pi, Chow and Pittard (2002) J. Bacteriol. 184, 5842-5847] that have a functionally significant CAR-like domain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)645-653
Number of pages9
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume376
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2003

Fingerprint

Aminobutyrates
Substrate Specificity
Alanine
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Escherichia coli
Membrane Transport Proteins
Substrates
Mutagenesis
Polyamines
Choline
Phenylalanine
Thermodynamics
Gages
Amines
Phenotype
Amino Acids
nipecotic acid

Keywords

  • Carrier
  • Catalysis
  • Mutagenesis
  • Permease
  • Specificity
  • Transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Induction of substrate specificity shifts by placement of alanine insertions within the consensus amphipathic region of the Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) transporter encoded by gabP",
abstract = "The Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) permease GabP is a prototypical APC (amine/polyamine/choline) superfamily transporter that has a CAR (consensus amphipathic region) containing multiple specificity determinants, ostensibly organized on two helical surfaces, one hydrophobic [SHS (sensitive hydrophobic surface)] and the other hydrophilic [SPS (sensitive polar surface)]. To gauge the functional effects of placing alanine insertions at close intervals across the entire GabP CAR, 64 insertion variants were constructed. Insertions, particularly those in the SHS and the SPS, were highly detrimental to steady-state [3H]GABA accumulation. TSR (transport specificity ratio) analysis, employing [3H]nipecotic acid and [ 14C]GABA, showed that certain alanine insertions were associated with a specificity shift (i.e. a change in kcat/Km). An insertion (INS Ala-269) located N-terminal to the SHS increased specificity for [3H]nipecotic acid relative to [14C]GABA, whereas an insertion (INS Ala-321) located C-terminal to the SPS had the opposite effect. Overall, the results are consistent with a working hypothesis that the GabP CAR contains extensive functional surfaces that may be manipulated by insertion mutagenesis to alter the specificity (kcat/ Km) phenotype. The thermodynamic basis of TSR analysis provides generality, suggesting that amino acid insertions could affect specificity in many other transporters, particularly those such as the E. coli phenylalanine permease PheP [Pi, Chow and Pittard (2002) J. Bacteriol. 184, 5842-5847] that have a functionally significant CAR-like domain.",
keywords = "Carrier, Catalysis, Mutagenesis, Permease, Specificity, Transport",
author = "Steven King and Hu, {Liaoyuan A.} and Amy Pugh",
year = "2003",
month = "12",
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T1 - Induction of substrate specificity shifts by placement of alanine insertions within the consensus amphipathic region of the Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) transporter encoded by gabP

AU - King, Steven

AU - Hu, Liaoyuan A.

AU - Pugh, Amy

PY - 2003/12/15

Y1 - 2003/12/15

N2 - The Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) permease GabP is a prototypical APC (amine/polyamine/choline) superfamily transporter that has a CAR (consensus amphipathic region) containing multiple specificity determinants, ostensibly organized on two helical surfaces, one hydrophobic [SHS (sensitive hydrophobic surface)] and the other hydrophilic [SPS (sensitive polar surface)]. To gauge the functional effects of placing alanine insertions at close intervals across the entire GabP CAR, 64 insertion variants were constructed. Insertions, particularly those in the SHS and the SPS, were highly detrimental to steady-state [3H]GABA accumulation. TSR (transport specificity ratio) analysis, employing [3H]nipecotic acid and [ 14C]GABA, showed that certain alanine insertions were associated with a specificity shift (i.e. a change in kcat/Km). An insertion (INS Ala-269) located N-terminal to the SHS increased specificity for [3H]nipecotic acid relative to [14C]GABA, whereas an insertion (INS Ala-321) located C-terminal to the SPS had the opposite effect. Overall, the results are consistent with a working hypothesis that the GabP CAR contains extensive functional surfaces that may be manipulated by insertion mutagenesis to alter the specificity (kcat/ Km) phenotype. The thermodynamic basis of TSR analysis provides generality, suggesting that amino acid insertions could affect specificity in many other transporters, particularly those such as the E. coli phenylalanine permease PheP [Pi, Chow and Pittard (2002) J. Bacteriol. 184, 5842-5847] that have a functionally significant CAR-like domain.

AB - The Escherichia coli GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) permease GabP is a prototypical APC (amine/polyamine/choline) superfamily transporter that has a CAR (consensus amphipathic region) containing multiple specificity determinants, ostensibly organized on two helical surfaces, one hydrophobic [SHS (sensitive hydrophobic surface)] and the other hydrophilic [SPS (sensitive polar surface)]. To gauge the functional effects of placing alanine insertions at close intervals across the entire GabP CAR, 64 insertion variants were constructed. Insertions, particularly those in the SHS and the SPS, were highly detrimental to steady-state [3H]GABA accumulation. TSR (transport specificity ratio) analysis, employing [3H]nipecotic acid and [ 14C]GABA, showed that certain alanine insertions were associated with a specificity shift (i.e. a change in kcat/Km). An insertion (INS Ala-269) located N-terminal to the SHS increased specificity for [3H]nipecotic acid relative to [14C]GABA, whereas an insertion (INS Ala-321) located C-terminal to the SPS had the opposite effect. Overall, the results are consistent with a working hypothesis that the GabP CAR contains extensive functional surfaces that may be manipulated by insertion mutagenesis to alter the specificity (kcat/ Km) phenotype. The thermodynamic basis of TSR analysis provides generality, suggesting that amino acid insertions could affect specificity in many other transporters, particularly those such as the E. coli phenylalanine permease PheP [Pi, Chow and Pittard (2002) J. Bacteriol. 184, 5842-5847] that have a functionally significant CAR-like domain.

KW - Carrier

KW - Catalysis

KW - Mutagenesis

KW - Permease

KW - Specificity

KW - Transport

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U2 - 10.1042/BJ20030595

DO - 10.1042/BJ20030595

M3 - Article

VL - 376

SP - 645

EP - 653

JO - Biochemical Journal

JF - Biochemical Journal

SN - 0264-6021

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