Individual differences in physical activity are closely associated with changes in body weight in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

Elinor Sullivan, Frank H. Koegler, Judy L. Cameron

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    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being overweight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88%; t = -6.3, df = 17, P <0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = -0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = -2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P <0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
    Volume291
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2006

    Fingerprint

    Body Weight Changes
    Macaca mulatta
    Individuality
    Weight Gain
    Haplorhini
    Energy Intake
    Weights and Measures
    Eating
    Accelerometry
    Basal Metabolism
    Epidemiologic Studies
    Health

    Keywords

    • Energy balance
    • Exercise
    • Obesity
    • Weight gain

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physiology

    Cite this

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    abstract = "The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being overweight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88{\%}; t = -6.3, df = 17, P <0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = -0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = -2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P <0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals.",
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