Background Select patients with peri-ampullary cancers require concomitant colon resection (CR) during a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for margin-negative resections. This study analysed the impact of concomitant CR on major morbidity (MM) and mortality. Methods National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) patients undergoing PD for peri-ampullary cancers were identified from 2005 to 2012. A 4: 1 propensity-score matched analysis isolated the impact of CR upon PD. Risk factors for 30-day MM and mortality were analysed to determine post-operative sequelae of PD+CR. Results From 10 965 PD and 159 PD+CR patients, 624 and 156, respectively, were selected for 4: 1 matched analysis. PD+CR resulted in a higher MM and mortality (50.0% and 9.0%) versus PD alone (28.8% and 2.9%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified risk factors for MM after PD: concomitant CR [odds ratio (OR)-3.19, P < 0.001], smoking (OR-1.92, P = 0.005), a lack of functional independence (OR-3.29, P = 0.018), cardiac disease (OR-2.39, P = 0.011), decreased albumin (per g/dl, OR-1.38, P = 0.033) and a longer operative time (versus median time, OR-1.56, P = 0.029). Independent predictors of mortality included concomitant CR (OR-3.16, P = 0.010), ventilator dependence (OR-13.87, P < 0.001) and septic shock (OR-6.02, P < 0.001). Conclusions CR was an independent predictor of MM and mortality after a PD. Patients requiring PD+CR should be identified pre-operatively, maximally optimized and referred to experienced surgeons at expert centres.
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