Incidence and Outcomes of Bacterial Bloodstream Infections during Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Jenna Petersen, Christian Lindner, Morgan Hakki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite the association of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little is known about BSIs, specifically during gastrointestinal (GI) tract aGVHD (aGHVD-GI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of BSIs complicating aGVHD-GI. This was a retrospective review of adult HCT recipients with grades I to IV aGVHD-GI between January 2009 and October 2017 at Oregon Health and Sciences University. BSIs occurring within 30 days of onset of aGVHD-GI were included. BSIs were categorized as "clinical" or "surveillance" based on chart review. A subgroup analysis of patients with grade IV aGVHD-GI examined potential BSI risk factors and cumulative survival at 30 and 45 days after onset of aGVHD-GI. Included were 229 patients. There were 45 unique BSIs in 39 patients (17%): 31 clinical (68.9%) and 14 surveillance (32.1%). The median time from aGVHD-GI onset to BSI was 18.5 days. BSIs were significantly more common during grade IV aGVHD-GI compared with grades I, II, or III. Fifty-two organisms were isolated during BSIs: 23 (44.2%) gram-positive and 29 (55.8%) gram-negative. Sixteen BSIs (36%) occurred during antibiotic exposure, and those were more likely to be caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Prior BSI occurring between the time of HCT and onset of aGVHD-GI and receipt of etanercept for steroid-refractory aGVHD-GI were independently associated with BSI. Eight patients, all with grade IV aGVHD, representing 30.8% of patients with BSI in this subgroup, experienced infection-associated mortality. Cumulative survival at days 30 and 45 after onset of grade IV aGVHD-GI was similar among patients with and without BSI. BSI is a common complication of grade IV aGVHD-GI, resulting in significant infection-associated mortality. Interventions targeting those at highest risk may be warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Cell Transplantation
Graft vs Host Disease
Bacterial Infections
Gastrointestinal Tract
Incidence
Infection
Transplants
Mortality
Survival

Keywords

  • Bacteremia
  • Bloodstream infection
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Hematopoietic cell transplant
  • Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

Cite this

@article{8e02af1d4c9543669d654bb9a037aef6,
title = "Incidence and Outcomes of Bacterial Bloodstream Infections during Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation",
abstract = "Despite the association of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little is known about BSIs, specifically during gastrointestinal (GI) tract aGVHD (aGHVD-GI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of BSIs complicating aGVHD-GI. This was a retrospective review of adult HCT recipients with grades I to IV aGVHD-GI between January 2009 and October 2017 at Oregon Health and Sciences University. BSIs occurring within 30 days of onset of aGVHD-GI were included. BSIs were categorized as {"}clinical{"} or {"}surveillance{"} based on chart review. A subgroup analysis of patients with grade IV aGVHD-GI examined potential BSI risk factors and cumulative survival at 30 and 45 days after onset of aGVHD-GI. Included were 229 patients. There were 45 unique BSIs in 39 patients (17{\%}): 31 clinical (68.9{\%}) and 14 surveillance (32.1{\%}). The median time from aGVHD-GI onset to BSI was 18.5 days. BSIs were significantly more common during grade IV aGVHD-GI compared with grades I, II, or III. Fifty-two organisms were isolated during BSIs: 23 (44.2{\%}) gram-positive and 29 (55.8{\%}) gram-negative. Sixteen BSIs (36{\%}) occurred during antibiotic exposure, and those were more likely to be caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Prior BSI occurring between the time of HCT and onset of aGVHD-GI and receipt of etanercept for steroid-refractory aGVHD-GI were independently associated with BSI. Eight patients, all with grade IV aGVHD, representing 30.8{\%} of patients with BSI in this subgroup, experienced infection-associated mortality. Cumulative survival at days 30 and 45 after onset of grade IV aGVHD-GI was similar among patients with and without BSI. BSI is a common complication of grade IV aGVHD-GI, resulting in significant infection-associated mortality. Interventions targeting those at highest risk may be warranted.",
keywords = "Bacteremia, Bloodstream infection, Graft-versus-host disease, Hematopoietic cell transplant, Infection",
author = "Jenna Petersen and Christian Lindner and Morgan Hakki",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.016",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation",
issn = "1083-8791",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Incidence and Outcomes of Bacterial Bloodstream Infections during Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

AU - Petersen, Jenna

AU - Lindner, Christian

AU - Hakki, Morgan

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Despite the association of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little is known about BSIs, specifically during gastrointestinal (GI) tract aGVHD (aGHVD-GI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of BSIs complicating aGVHD-GI. This was a retrospective review of adult HCT recipients with grades I to IV aGVHD-GI between January 2009 and October 2017 at Oregon Health and Sciences University. BSIs occurring within 30 days of onset of aGVHD-GI were included. BSIs were categorized as "clinical" or "surveillance" based on chart review. A subgroup analysis of patients with grade IV aGVHD-GI examined potential BSI risk factors and cumulative survival at 30 and 45 days after onset of aGVHD-GI. Included were 229 patients. There were 45 unique BSIs in 39 patients (17%): 31 clinical (68.9%) and 14 surveillance (32.1%). The median time from aGVHD-GI onset to BSI was 18.5 days. BSIs were significantly more common during grade IV aGVHD-GI compared with grades I, II, or III. Fifty-two organisms were isolated during BSIs: 23 (44.2%) gram-positive and 29 (55.8%) gram-negative. Sixteen BSIs (36%) occurred during antibiotic exposure, and those were more likely to be caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Prior BSI occurring between the time of HCT and onset of aGVHD-GI and receipt of etanercept for steroid-refractory aGVHD-GI were independently associated with BSI. Eight patients, all with grade IV aGVHD, representing 30.8% of patients with BSI in this subgroup, experienced infection-associated mortality. Cumulative survival at days 30 and 45 after onset of grade IV aGVHD-GI was similar among patients with and without BSI. BSI is a common complication of grade IV aGVHD-GI, resulting in significant infection-associated mortality. Interventions targeting those at highest risk may be warranted.

AB - Despite the association of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little is known about BSIs, specifically during gastrointestinal (GI) tract aGVHD (aGHVD-GI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of BSIs complicating aGVHD-GI. This was a retrospective review of adult HCT recipients with grades I to IV aGVHD-GI between January 2009 and October 2017 at Oregon Health and Sciences University. BSIs occurring within 30 days of onset of aGVHD-GI were included. BSIs were categorized as "clinical" or "surveillance" based on chart review. A subgroup analysis of patients with grade IV aGVHD-GI examined potential BSI risk factors and cumulative survival at 30 and 45 days after onset of aGVHD-GI. Included were 229 patients. There were 45 unique BSIs in 39 patients (17%): 31 clinical (68.9%) and 14 surveillance (32.1%). The median time from aGVHD-GI onset to BSI was 18.5 days. BSIs were significantly more common during grade IV aGVHD-GI compared with grades I, II, or III. Fifty-two organisms were isolated during BSIs: 23 (44.2%) gram-positive and 29 (55.8%) gram-negative. Sixteen BSIs (36%) occurred during antibiotic exposure, and those were more likely to be caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Prior BSI occurring between the time of HCT and onset of aGVHD-GI and receipt of etanercept for steroid-refractory aGVHD-GI were independently associated with BSI. Eight patients, all with grade IV aGVHD, representing 30.8% of patients with BSI in this subgroup, experienced infection-associated mortality. Cumulative survival at days 30 and 45 after onset of grade IV aGVHD-GI was similar among patients with and without BSI. BSI is a common complication of grade IV aGVHD-GI, resulting in significant infection-associated mortality. Interventions targeting those at highest risk may be warranted.

KW - Bacteremia

KW - Bloodstream infection

KW - Graft-versus-host disease

KW - Hematopoietic cell transplant

KW - Infection

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065769411&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065769411&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.016

DO - 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.016

M3 - Article

C2 - 31002988

AN - SCOPUS:85065769411

JO - Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation

JF - Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation

SN - 1083-8791

ER -