In vivo human melanoma cytokine production: Inverse correlation of GM- CSF production with tumor depth

C. Hensley, S. Spitzler, B. E. McAlpine, M. Lynn, J. C. Ansel, A. R. Solomon, C. A. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Melanomas produce multiple cytokines which may influence their growth in vivo. Experimental evidence suggests that granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can induce a potent anti-melanoma response, whereas interleukin-8 (IL-8) may act as a growth factor in human melanoma. Little is currently known regarding the production of these cytokines by human melanoma in vivo. In this study we tested the hypothesis that endogenous production of GM-CSF and IL-8 can be correlated with the depth of human malignant melanoma surgical specimens. We examined 45 melanocytic human tissue samples consisting of 27 primary cutaneous melanomas, 9 metastatic melanomas, and 9 dysplastic nevi for in vivo GM-CSF and IL-8 production using immunohistochemistry. The majority of thin melanomas (≤0.76 mm) stained highly positive for GM-CSF with little or no staining for IL-8 whereas the medium (>0.76-≤4.0 mm) and thick (>4.0 mm) melanoma specimens showed little or no staining for GM-CSF and significant amounts of IL-8 staining. Metastatic melanoma as well as dysplastic nevi specimens had little or no GM- CSF and IL-8 staining. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous melanoma cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-8 with opposing effects on tumor progression play an important role in melanoma growth and regulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-341
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Dermatology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1998


  • Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM- CSF)
  • Interleukin-8 (IL-8)
  • Melanoma
  • Tumor thickness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Dermatology


Dive into the research topics of 'In vivo human melanoma cytokine production: Inverse correlation of GM- CSF production with tumor depth'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this