In vitro performance of 2-step, total etch adhesives modified by thiourethane additives

J. Puppin-Rontani, A. P.P. Fugolin, A. R. Costa, L. Correr-Sobrinho, C. S. Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objectives: Thio-urethane oligomeric additives have been shown to improve the mechanical properties of dental composites and resin cements. To try to harness those same properties in dental adhesives, in this study, these oligomers (TU) were added to the matrix and/or as filler functionalization of experimental adhesives, and the effects on conversion and mechanical properties were analyzed. Methods: BisGMA and HEMA (60/40 wt%) were used as the monomer matrix, made polymerizable by the addition of 0.2 wt% 2,2-dimethoxy-2- phenylacetophenone. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol was added at 0.5 wt% as the inhibitor. This material was used as the unfilled control (BH). TU oligomers were added at 20 wt % to the matrix (BH+20%TU, unfilled) and/or used as filler functionalization (TF, 10 wt%). Fillers functionalized with methacrylate (MF, 10 wt%) served as the control. The experimental adhesives groups containing fillers were: BH+10%MF; BH+10%TF; BH+20%TU+10%MF; BH+20%TU+10%TF. Flexural properties were tested in three-point bending (wet and dry). Polymerization kinetics was followed in real-time in near-IR. Water Sorption/Solubility (WS/SL, ISO 4049) and Viscosity (rotational rheometry) were also evaluated. For Microtensile bond strength 40 vol% ethanol was added to adhesives, which was applied onto sound dentin from third human molars. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test, and test t for the comparison between storage time of the microtensile bond strength test (alpha = 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference between groups when yield strength (YS) and flexural modulus (FM) were evaluated in dry conditions. After water storage, all the groups containing TU in the matrix showed statistically lower YS/FM values. This was true in spite of the statistically higher conversion for those same groups. The maximum rate of polymerization (Rpmax) was higher for BH+10%TF and no significant difference was found for the groups BH and BH+10% MF. The lowest Rpmax values were found for BH+20%TU+10%TF and BH+20%TU. BH+20%TU+10%TF showed the highest viscosity values followed by BH+20%TU+10%MF and BH+20%TU, with statistically significant difference between them. For the microtensile bond strength test at 24h (p = 0.13) and 6 months (p = 0.11) and WS/SL (p > 0.05), no significant difference was found among groups. The storage time (24 h and 6 months) did not affect the microtensile bond strength results. Conclusion: In spite of improving the conversion, the addition of TU in the matrix reduced the mechanical properties of the adhesives tested after water storage. This did not affect the bond strength at 24 h or 6 months.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102688
JournalInternational Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Dental adhesives
  • Mechanical properties of adhesives
  • Micro-tensile
  • Thio-urethane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics


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