Objectives: To explore the underlying mechanism of tumor regrowth in cases of noninvasive urothelial carcinoma that recur in unusual anatomic locations. Methods: The pathology files of our institution and the consult service of one of us were searched for cases of noninvasive nonmetastatic urothelial carcinoma with involvement of unusual anatomic sites. Cases in which the mode of spread included direct spread to the adjacent tissue and lymphovascular metastases were excluded. Medical history, including presenting symptoms, and follow-up data were obtained. Results: Two cases of noninvasive urothelial carcinoma were identified. One had presented as an implant in the peritoneal investment of the bladder dome and the other as multiple implants growing on the benign surface of the colonic mucosa of an orthotopic neobladder distant from the anastomosis site. Both cases had initially presented as noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Although the urinary bladder was free of neoplastic changes at nephroureterectomy, both patients also developed several papillary tumors within the bladder shortly after the removal of the kidney. Conclusions: After clinicopathologic correlation, the mode of tumor spread in these cases was best explained by the "seeding/implantation" theory. The urothelial tumor cells in each of these cases demonstrated the ability to implant themselves not only in the urothelium of the bladder but also in the colonic mucosa of a constructed neobladder and on the peritoneal surface.
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