Purpose: To determine the impact of prior or current CNS disease on the outcome of high-dose chemotherapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients and Methods: In a 54-month period, 373 patients with hematologic malignancies underwent allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or blood stem-cell transplantation using high-dose thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide (TBC) as the preparative regimen. Four patients with active CNS disease at BMT and 20 patients with a history of prior CNS disease were identified. The outcomes of those with a history of CNS disease were compared with those of a matched control group. Results: Of four patients with active CNS disease at the time of BMT, two had CNS recurrences and one recurred in the bone marrow. One patient died of treatment-related toxicity. Four of 20 patients with prior CNS involvement currently remain free of disease. At 2 years, the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 23% ± 19%, and the DFS rate for the control group 39% ± 24% (P = .053). An increased rate of treatment-related toxicity and especially grades II to IV CNS toxicity accounted for the poorer outcome of patients who had a history of CNS disease. Recurrence rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Prior radiation to the CNS correlated with CNS complications posttransplant (P = .01). Conclusion: Consolidation with TBC and BMT can induce prolonged DFS in a proportion of patients with a history of CNS disease. Such patients are at increased risk for CNS complications that lead to an inferior overall outcome when compared with a control group.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research