Immune-modulating enteral formulations: Optimum components, appropriate patients, and controversial use of arginine in sepsis

Minhao Zhou, Robert Martindale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nutrients have traditionally been viewed as a means to provide basic calories to sustain homeostasis. However, critically ill, surgical, and trauma patients are in a constant dynamic state between systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and compensatory anti-inflammatory response (CARS). Results from ongoing research strongly support the use of specific nutrients to modulate the immune and/or metabolic response. These agents can now be considered therapeutic tools in the management of complex hypermetabolic diseases. The principle of using nutrients as a therapeutic strategy rather than just as "nutritional support" requires a shift in the current dogma. The most common nutrients found in currently available enteral immune-modulating formulas are omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), antioxidants, nucleotides, glutamine, and arginine. Multiple individual reports and at least five meta-analyses using combinations of immune-modulating nutrients have reported almost uniform beneficial results. However, certain conflicting hypotheses continue to revolve around the use of arginine in septic patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)329-337
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Gastroenterology Reports
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2007

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Small Intestine
Arginine
Sepsis
Food
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Nutritional Support
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Glutamine
Critical Illness
Meta-Analysis
Homeostasis
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Nucleotides
Antioxidants
Wounds and Injuries
Therapeutics
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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