Identification and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine using the generalized rank annihilation method of curve resolution

Shousong Li, Paul J. Gemperline, Kimberly Briley, Steven (Steve) Kazmierczak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations


A rapid analytical method which is of practical use for the identification and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine using HPLC with a diode-array detection is described. Because the method utilizes mathematical resolution of partially resolved peaks, greatly simplified sample preparation procedures and very short run times can be used. The generalized rank annihilation method (GRAM) is used to eliminate response due to unknown background peaks and separate partially resolved peaks. An optimized gradient elution program was found for which morphine, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, benzoylecgonine, lidocaine, cocaine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, norpropoxyphene, nordiazepam, codeine, d-amphetamine, meperidine, and amitriptyline elute from the HPLC column in less than 8.5 min. A commercially available system for HPLC analysis of drugs of abuse is currently available, however, the commercially available system takes 21 min to complete its analysis. Two modified sample pre-treatment methods were also developed to simplify sample treatment procedures substantially. In this paper, The GRAM technique is shown to be extremely powerful in identifying drugs of abuse from large overlapping peaks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-223
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 13 1994
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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