Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia in CKD: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

Sarah Gilligan, Kalani L. Raphael

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Abnormalities of serum potassium are common in patients with CKD. Although hyperkalemia is a well-recognized complication of CKD, the prevalence rates of hyperkalemia (14%-20%) and hypokalemia (12%-18%) are similar. CKD severity, use of medications such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and diuretics, and dietary potassium intake are major determinants of serum potassium concentration in CKD. Demographic factors, acid-base status, blood glucose, and other comorbidities contribute as well. Both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia are associated with similarly increased risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and hospitalization. On the other hand, limited evidence suggests a link between hypokalemia, but not hyperkalemia, and progression of CKD. This article reviews the prevalence rates and risk factors for hyperkalemia and hypokalemia, and their associations with adverse outcomes in CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-318
Number of pages4
JournalAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Outcomes
  • Potassium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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