Human whole blood 1H2O transverse relaxation with gadolinium-based contrast reagents

Magnetic susceptibility and transmembrane water exchange

Gregory J. Wilson, Charles Jr Springer, Sarah Bastawrous, Jeffrey H. Maki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To characterize transverse relaxation in oxygenated whole blood with extracellular gadolinium-based contrast reagents by experiment and simulation. Methods: Experimental measurements of transverse 1H2O relaxation from oxygenated whole human blood and plasma were made at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla. Spin-echo refocused and free-induction decays are reported for blood and plasma samples containing four different contrast reagents (gadobenate, gadoteridol, gadofosveset, and gadobutrol), each present at concentrations ranging from 1 to 18mM (i.e., mmol (contrast reagent (CR))/L (blood)). Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to ascertain the molecular mechanisms underlying relaxation. These consisted of random walks of water molecules in a large ensemble of randomly oriented erythrocytes. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) differences between the extra- and intracellular compartments were taken into account. All key parameters for these simulations were taken from independent published measurements: they include no adjustable variables. Results: Transverse relaxation is much more rapid in whole blood than in plasma, and the large majority of this dephasing is reversible by spin echo. Agreement between the experimental data and simulated results is remarkably good. Conclusion: Extracellular field inhomogeneities alone make very small contributions, whereas the orientation-dependent BMS intracellular resonance frequencies lead to the majority of transverse dephasing. Equilibrium exchange of water molecules between the intra- and extracellular compartments plays a significant role in transverse dephasing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2016

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Gadolinium
Water
Erythrocytes

Keywords

  • Bulk magnetic susceptibility
  • Contrast reagents
  • MR angiography
  • MRI
  • Red blood cell
  • Relaxation
  • Water exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

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title = "Human whole blood 1H2O transverse relaxation with gadolinium-based contrast reagents: Magnetic susceptibility and transmembrane water exchange",
abstract = "Purpose: To characterize transverse relaxation in oxygenated whole blood with extracellular gadolinium-based contrast reagents by experiment and simulation. Methods: Experimental measurements of transverse 1H2O relaxation from oxygenated whole human blood and plasma were made at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla. Spin-echo refocused and free-induction decays are reported for blood and plasma samples containing four different contrast reagents (gadobenate, gadoteridol, gadofosveset, and gadobutrol), each present at concentrations ranging from 1 to 18mM (i.e., mmol (contrast reagent (CR))/L (blood)). Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to ascertain the molecular mechanisms underlying relaxation. These consisted of random walks of water molecules in a large ensemble of randomly oriented erythrocytes. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) differences between the extra- and intracellular compartments were taken into account. All key parameters for these simulations were taken from independent published measurements: they include no adjustable variables. Results: Transverse relaxation is much more rapid in whole blood than in plasma, and the large majority of this dephasing is reversible by spin echo. Agreement between the experimental data and simulated results is remarkably good. Conclusion: Extracellular field inhomogeneities alone make very small contributions, whereas the orientation-dependent BMS intracellular resonance frequencies lead to the majority of transverse dephasing. Equilibrium exchange of water molecules between the intra- and extracellular compartments plays a significant role in transverse dephasing.",
keywords = "Bulk magnetic susceptibility, Contrast reagents, MR angiography, MRI, Red blood cell, Relaxation, Water exchange",
author = "Wilson, {Gregory J.} and Springer, {Charles Jr} and Sarah Bastawrous and Maki, {Jeffrey H.}",
year = "2016",
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T1 - Human whole blood 1H2O transverse relaxation with gadolinium-based contrast reagents

T2 - Magnetic susceptibility and transmembrane water exchange

AU - Wilson, Gregory J.

AU - Springer, Charles Jr

AU - Bastawrous, Sarah

AU - Maki, Jeffrey H.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Purpose: To characterize transverse relaxation in oxygenated whole blood with extracellular gadolinium-based contrast reagents by experiment and simulation. Methods: Experimental measurements of transverse 1H2O relaxation from oxygenated whole human blood and plasma were made at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla. Spin-echo refocused and free-induction decays are reported for blood and plasma samples containing four different contrast reagents (gadobenate, gadoteridol, gadofosveset, and gadobutrol), each present at concentrations ranging from 1 to 18mM (i.e., mmol (contrast reagent (CR))/L (blood)). Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to ascertain the molecular mechanisms underlying relaxation. These consisted of random walks of water molecules in a large ensemble of randomly oriented erythrocytes. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) differences between the extra- and intracellular compartments were taken into account. All key parameters for these simulations were taken from independent published measurements: they include no adjustable variables. Results: Transverse relaxation is much more rapid in whole blood than in plasma, and the large majority of this dephasing is reversible by spin echo. Agreement between the experimental data and simulated results is remarkably good. Conclusion: Extracellular field inhomogeneities alone make very small contributions, whereas the orientation-dependent BMS intracellular resonance frequencies lead to the majority of transverse dephasing. Equilibrium exchange of water molecules between the intra- and extracellular compartments plays a significant role in transverse dephasing.

AB - Purpose: To characterize transverse relaxation in oxygenated whole blood with extracellular gadolinium-based contrast reagents by experiment and simulation. Methods: Experimental measurements of transverse 1H2O relaxation from oxygenated whole human blood and plasma were made at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla. Spin-echo refocused and free-induction decays are reported for blood and plasma samples containing four different contrast reagents (gadobenate, gadoteridol, gadofosveset, and gadobutrol), each present at concentrations ranging from 1 to 18mM (i.e., mmol (contrast reagent (CR))/L (blood)). Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to ascertain the molecular mechanisms underlying relaxation. These consisted of random walks of water molecules in a large ensemble of randomly oriented erythrocytes. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) differences between the extra- and intracellular compartments were taken into account. All key parameters for these simulations were taken from independent published measurements: they include no adjustable variables. Results: Transverse relaxation is much more rapid in whole blood than in plasma, and the large majority of this dephasing is reversible by spin echo. Agreement between the experimental data and simulated results is remarkably good. Conclusion: Extracellular field inhomogeneities alone make very small contributions, whereas the orientation-dependent BMS intracellular resonance frequencies lead to the majority of transverse dephasing. Equilibrium exchange of water molecules between the intra- and extracellular compartments plays a significant role in transverse dephasing.

KW - Bulk magnetic susceptibility

KW - Contrast reagents

KW - MR angiography

KW - MRI

KW - Red blood cell

KW - Relaxation

KW - Water exchange

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