Human saphenous vein grafts explanted from the arterial circulation demonstrate altered smooth-muscle and endothelial responses

T. C. Park, C. T. Harker, James Edwards, Gregory (Greg) Moneta, L. M. Taylor, J. M. Porter, R. L. McCann, C. K. Zarins, D. B. Walsh, R. L. Dalman

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    Abstract

    Purpose: Animal models have been used to assess the function of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium of veins grafted into arterial circulation. The primary model consists of grafting the external jugular vein into the carotid artery of the rabbit. These studies suggest a selective increase in the responsiveness of the grafted veins to serotonin. However, in both human cardiac and peripheral vascular operations, the saphenous, not the jugular, is the vein most frequently used. Thus the propriety of the rabbit model is unknown. Methods: Human saphenous veins and vein grafts were obtained from patients undergoing leg vein bypass graft revisions (n = 8). The reversed vein grafts were placed into arterial circulation for periods ranging from 4 to 26 months before removal (mean 16 months). All vessels were immediately cut into rings and suspended in organ chambers for recording isometric contractions to norepinephrine and serotonin. Results: The maximal contractions elicited by both norepinephrine and serotonin were reduced in human vein grafts in comparison to the results in human saphenous vein (maximal response to norepinephrine 1.42 ± 0.34 gm [vein graft] vs 4.59 ± 1.13 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.031; maximal response to serotonin 2.68 ± 0.58 gm [vein graft] vs 4.72 ± 1.11 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.042). Human vein grafts were less responsive to norepinephrine than was saphenous vein (negative log of concentration that caused 50% of the maximal response -5.91 ± 0.10 and -6.84 ± 0.22, respectively; p <0.009). After precontraction with norepinephrine (to 30% of the maximal response), saphenous vein, but not vein grafts, demonstrated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (maximum relaxation 27.4% ± 6.8%; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Human saphenous veins grafted into arterial circulation exhibit loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and diminished contractions to agonists (norepinephrine and serotonin). In contrast to rabbit data, serotonin elicits dose-dependent contractions in both human saphenous vein and human vein grafts. Since the vascular wall contractility varies widely across species, the relevance of rabbit vein graft data to human bypass grafts is uncertain.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)61-69
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
    Volume18
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 1993

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    Saphenous Vein
    Smooth Muscle
    Veins
    Transplants
    Norepinephrine
    Serotonin
    Rabbits
    Endothelium
    Jugular Veins
    Acetylcholine
    Blood Vessels
    Serotonin Receptor Agonists
    Isometric Contraction
    Vascular Smooth Muscle
    Carotid Arteries
    Leg
    Animal Models

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
    • Surgery

    Cite this

    Human saphenous vein grafts explanted from the arterial circulation demonstrate altered smooth-muscle and endothelial responses. / Park, T. C.; Harker, C. T.; Edwards, James; Moneta, Gregory (Greg); Taylor, L. M.; Porter, J. M.; McCann, R. L.; Zarins, C. K.; Walsh, D. B.; Dalman, R. L.

    In: Journal of Vascular Surgery, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1993, p. 61-69.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Park, T. C. ; Harker, C. T. ; Edwards, James ; Moneta, Gregory (Greg) ; Taylor, L. M. ; Porter, J. M. ; McCann, R. L. ; Zarins, C. K. ; Walsh, D. B. ; Dalman, R. L. / Human saphenous vein grafts explanted from the arterial circulation demonstrate altered smooth-muscle and endothelial responses. In: Journal of Vascular Surgery. 1993 ; Vol. 18, No. 1. pp. 61-69.
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    title = "Human saphenous vein grafts explanted from the arterial circulation demonstrate altered smooth-muscle and endothelial responses",
    abstract = "Purpose: Animal models have been used to assess the function of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium of veins grafted into arterial circulation. The primary model consists of grafting the external jugular vein into the carotid artery of the rabbit. These studies suggest a selective increase in the responsiveness of the grafted veins to serotonin. However, in both human cardiac and peripheral vascular operations, the saphenous, not the jugular, is the vein most frequently used. Thus the propriety of the rabbit model is unknown. Methods: Human saphenous veins and vein grafts were obtained from patients undergoing leg vein bypass graft revisions (n = 8). The reversed vein grafts were placed into arterial circulation for periods ranging from 4 to 26 months before removal (mean 16 months). All vessels were immediately cut into rings and suspended in organ chambers for recording isometric contractions to norepinephrine and serotonin. Results: The maximal contractions elicited by both norepinephrine and serotonin were reduced in human vein grafts in comparison to the results in human saphenous vein (maximal response to norepinephrine 1.42 ± 0.34 gm [vein graft] vs 4.59 ± 1.13 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.031; maximal response to serotonin 2.68 ± 0.58 gm [vein graft] vs 4.72 ± 1.11 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.042). Human vein grafts were less responsive to norepinephrine than was saphenous vein (negative log of concentration that caused 50{\%} of the maximal response -5.91 ± 0.10 and -6.84 ± 0.22, respectively; p <0.009). After precontraction with norepinephrine (to 30{\%} of the maximal response), saphenous vein, but not vein grafts, demonstrated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (maximum relaxation 27.4{\%} ± 6.8{\%}; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Human saphenous veins grafted into arterial circulation exhibit loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and diminished contractions to agonists (norepinephrine and serotonin). In contrast to rabbit data, serotonin elicits dose-dependent contractions in both human saphenous vein and human vein grafts. Since the vascular wall contractility varies widely across species, the relevance of rabbit vein graft data to human bypass grafts is uncertain.",
    author = "Park, {T. C.} and Harker, {C. T.} and James Edwards and Moneta, {Gregory (Greg)} and Taylor, {L. M.} and Porter, {J. M.} and McCann, {R. L.} and Zarins, {C. K.} and Walsh, {D. B.} and Dalman, {R. L.}",
    year = "1993",
    doi = "10.1067/mva.1993.42071",
    language = "English (US)",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Human saphenous vein grafts explanted from the arterial circulation demonstrate altered smooth-muscle and endothelial responses

    AU - Park, T. C.

    AU - Harker, C. T.

    AU - Edwards, James

    AU - Moneta, Gregory (Greg)

    AU - Taylor, L. M.

    AU - Porter, J. M.

    AU - McCann, R. L.

    AU - Zarins, C. K.

    AU - Walsh, D. B.

    AU - Dalman, R. L.

    PY - 1993

    Y1 - 1993

    N2 - Purpose: Animal models have been used to assess the function of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium of veins grafted into arterial circulation. The primary model consists of grafting the external jugular vein into the carotid artery of the rabbit. These studies suggest a selective increase in the responsiveness of the grafted veins to serotonin. However, in both human cardiac and peripheral vascular operations, the saphenous, not the jugular, is the vein most frequently used. Thus the propriety of the rabbit model is unknown. Methods: Human saphenous veins and vein grafts were obtained from patients undergoing leg vein bypass graft revisions (n = 8). The reversed vein grafts were placed into arterial circulation for periods ranging from 4 to 26 months before removal (mean 16 months). All vessels were immediately cut into rings and suspended in organ chambers for recording isometric contractions to norepinephrine and serotonin. Results: The maximal contractions elicited by both norepinephrine and serotonin were reduced in human vein grafts in comparison to the results in human saphenous vein (maximal response to norepinephrine 1.42 ± 0.34 gm [vein graft] vs 4.59 ± 1.13 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.031; maximal response to serotonin 2.68 ± 0.58 gm [vein graft] vs 4.72 ± 1.11 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.042). Human vein grafts were less responsive to norepinephrine than was saphenous vein (negative log of concentration that caused 50% of the maximal response -5.91 ± 0.10 and -6.84 ± 0.22, respectively; p <0.009). After precontraction with norepinephrine (to 30% of the maximal response), saphenous vein, but not vein grafts, demonstrated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (maximum relaxation 27.4% ± 6.8%; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Human saphenous veins grafted into arterial circulation exhibit loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and diminished contractions to agonists (norepinephrine and serotonin). In contrast to rabbit data, serotonin elicits dose-dependent contractions in both human saphenous vein and human vein grafts. Since the vascular wall contractility varies widely across species, the relevance of rabbit vein graft data to human bypass grafts is uncertain.

    AB - Purpose: Animal models have been used to assess the function of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium of veins grafted into arterial circulation. The primary model consists of grafting the external jugular vein into the carotid artery of the rabbit. These studies suggest a selective increase in the responsiveness of the grafted veins to serotonin. However, in both human cardiac and peripheral vascular operations, the saphenous, not the jugular, is the vein most frequently used. Thus the propriety of the rabbit model is unknown. Methods: Human saphenous veins and vein grafts were obtained from patients undergoing leg vein bypass graft revisions (n = 8). The reversed vein grafts were placed into arterial circulation for periods ranging from 4 to 26 months before removal (mean 16 months). All vessels were immediately cut into rings and suspended in organ chambers for recording isometric contractions to norepinephrine and serotonin. Results: The maximal contractions elicited by both norepinephrine and serotonin were reduced in human vein grafts in comparison to the results in human saphenous vein (maximal response to norepinephrine 1.42 ± 0.34 gm [vein graft] vs 4.59 ± 1.13 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.031; maximal response to serotonin 2.68 ± 0.58 gm [vein graft] vs 4.72 ± 1.11 gm [saphenous vein], p = 0.042). Human vein grafts were less responsive to norepinephrine than was saphenous vein (negative log of concentration that caused 50% of the maximal response -5.91 ± 0.10 and -6.84 ± 0.22, respectively; p <0.009). After precontraction with norepinephrine (to 30% of the maximal response), saphenous vein, but not vein grafts, demonstrated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (maximum relaxation 27.4% ± 6.8%; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Human saphenous veins grafted into arterial circulation exhibit loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and diminished contractions to agonists (norepinephrine and serotonin). In contrast to rabbit data, serotonin elicits dose-dependent contractions in both human saphenous vein and human vein grafts. Since the vascular wall contractility varies widely across species, the relevance of rabbit vein graft data to human bypass grafts is uncertain.

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