Rapid advances in the understanding of the molecular biology, data from translational and clinical trials, and retrospective analyses has influenced the diagnosis and treatment of systemic mastocytosis (SM). Many options have existed for the symptomatic management of SM patients, but recent evolution in regards to the molecular underpinnings of this disease and our ability to distinguish clonal mastocytosis from mast cell activation syndrome has changed our treatment paradigm and opened new opportunities for understanding genetic risk, transformation to mast cell leukaemia, and treatment choices. Key to this change has been the discovery of the KIT mutation and the use of next generation sequencing to evaluate for co-existing molecular mutations that may define the disease course. Careful diagnosis, judicious symptom management and close surveillance of those who may have yet undiagnosed disease is paramount in providing optimal management. In this article, we review the diagnosis and provide a paradigm for the management of SM patients.
- Systemic mastocytosis
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