How effective are dietary interventions in lowering lipids in adults with dyslipedemia?

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Abstract

Dietary changes are recommended as first-line treatment for mild to moderate dyslipidemia. We examined evidence on 5 common dietary interventions for adults with dyslipidemia. The average effects on lipid levels are reported in the TABLE. Low-fat: A meta-analysis of 37 mostly good-quality controlled trials evaluated the former National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step I and Step II diets in 11,586 participants.1 The Step I diet restricted intake of total fat (≤30% of total calories), saturated fat (≤10% of total calories), and cholesterol (≤300 mg/d). Step II goals were lower for saturated fat (2 The amount of soy isoflavone consumed varied across studies. One subgroup analysis showed that consumption of >80 mg/d was associated with a better effect on lipids. In subjects with baseline hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >240 mg/dL), greater reductions in total cholesterol, and greater increases in HDL were reported, with comparable changes in LDL and triglycerides. Soluble fiber: A meta-analysis of 67 good-quality RCTs evaluated the effects of soluble dietary fiber in 2990 subjects (mean baseline lipid values [mg/dL]: total cholesterol, 240.9; LDL, 164.4).3 Diets high in soluble fiber (average dose of 9.5 g/d) were associated with a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL and no significant change in HDL or triglycerides. Type of fiber (oat, psyllium, or pectin) was not influential after controlling for initial lipid level. "Portfolio" diet: A fair-quality randomized crossover study with 34 participants found that a "portfolio diet," which combines the fat intake of the NCEP Step II diet with cholesterol-lowering "functional foods" (including plant sterols, nuts, soluble fibers, and soy protein), markedly reduced total cholesterol and LDL.4 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were: total cholesterol, 261.41; LDL, 174.40; HDL, 47.56; triglycerides, 199.28. Mediterranean diet: A fair-quality RCT with 88 participants reported reduced LDL among subjects assigned to a Mediterranean-type diet.5 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were total cholesterol, 255.22; LDL, 170.15; HDL, 58.01; triglycerides, 141.71.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-48
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Family Practice
Volume56
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007

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Cholesterol
Lipids
Diet
LDL Cholesterol
Fats
Triglycerides
Dyslipidemias
Meta-Analysis
Psyllium
Mediterranean Diet
Education
Phytosterols
Edible Plants
Functional Food
Soybean Proteins
Nuts
Isoflavones
Dietary Fiber
Hypercholesterolemia
Cross-Over Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "How effective are dietary interventions in lowering lipids in adults with dyslipedemia?",
abstract = "Dietary changes are recommended as first-line treatment for mild to moderate dyslipidemia. We examined evidence on 5 common dietary interventions for adults with dyslipidemia. The average effects on lipid levels are reported in the TABLE. Low-fat: A meta-analysis of 37 mostly good-quality controlled trials evaluated the former National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step I and Step II diets in 11,586 participants.1 The Step I diet restricted intake of total fat (≤30{\%} of total calories), saturated fat (≤10{\%} of total calories), and cholesterol (≤300 mg/d). Step II goals were lower for saturated fat (2 The amount of soy isoflavone consumed varied across studies. One subgroup analysis showed that consumption of >80 mg/d was associated with a better effect on lipids. In subjects with baseline hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >240 mg/dL), greater reductions in total cholesterol, and greater increases in HDL were reported, with comparable changes in LDL and triglycerides. Soluble fiber: A meta-analysis of 67 good-quality RCTs evaluated the effects of soluble dietary fiber in 2990 subjects (mean baseline lipid values [mg/dL]: total cholesterol, 240.9; LDL, 164.4).3 Diets high in soluble fiber (average dose of 9.5 g/d) were associated with a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL and no significant change in HDL or triglycerides. Type of fiber (oat, psyllium, or pectin) was not influential after controlling for initial lipid level. {"}Portfolio{"} diet: A fair-quality randomized crossover study with 34 participants found that a {"}portfolio diet,{"} which combines the fat intake of the NCEP Step II diet with cholesterol-lowering {"}functional foods{"} (including plant sterols, nuts, soluble fibers, and soy protein), markedly reduced total cholesterol and LDL.4 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were: total cholesterol, 261.41; LDL, 174.40; HDL, 47.56; triglycerides, 199.28. Mediterranean diet: A fair-quality RCT with 88 participants reported reduced LDL among subjects assigned to a Mediterranean-type diet.5 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were total cholesterol, 255.22; LDL, 170.15; HDL, 58.01; triglycerides, 141.71.",
author = "David Buckley and John Muench and Andrew Hamilton",
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T1 - How effective are dietary interventions in lowering lipids in adults with dyslipedemia?

AU - Buckley, David

AU - Muench, John

AU - Hamilton, Andrew

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N2 - Dietary changes are recommended as first-line treatment for mild to moderate dyslipidemia. We examined evidence on 5 common dietary interventions for adults with dyslipidemia. The average effects on lipid levels are reported in the TABLE. Low-fat: A meta-analysis of 37 mostly good-quality controlled trials evaluated the former National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step I and Step II diets in 11,586 participants.1 The Step I diet restricted intake of total fat (≤30% of total calories), saturated fat (≤10% of total calories), and cholesterol (≤300 mg/d). Step II goals were lower for saturated fat (2 The amount of soy isoflavone consumed varied across studies. One subgroup analysis showed that consumption of >80 mg/d was associated with a better effect on lipids. In subjects with baseline hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >240 mg/dL), greater reductions in total cholesterol, and greater increases in HDL were reported, with comparable changes in LDL and triglycerides. Soluble fiber: A meta-analysis of 67 good-quality RCTs evaluated the effects of soluble dietary fiber in 2990 subjects (mean baseline lipid values [mg/dL]: total cholesterol, 240.9; LDL, 164.4).3 Diets high in soluble fiber (average dose of 9.5 g/d) were associated with a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL and no significant change in HDL or triglycerides. Type of fiber (oat, psyllium, or pectin) was not influential after controlling for initial lipid level. "Portfolio" diet: A fair-quality randomized crossover study with 34 participants found that a "portfolio diet," which combines the fat intake of the NCEP Step II diet with cholesterol-lowering "functional foods" (including plant sterols, nuts, soluble fibers, and soy protein), markedly reduced total cholesterol and LDL.4 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were: total cholesterol, 261.41; LDL, 174.40; HDL, 47.56; triglycerides, 199.28. Mediterranean diet: A fair-quality RCT with 88 participants reported reduced LDL among subjects assigned to a Mediterranean-type diet.5 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were total cholesterol, 255.22; LDL, 170.15; HDL, 58.01; triglycerides, 141.71.

AB - Dietary changes are recommended as first-line treatment for mild to moderate dyslipidemia. We examined evidence on 5 common dietary interventions for adults with dyslipidemia. The average effects on lipid levels are reported in the TABLE. Low-fat: A meta-analysis of 37 mostly good-quality controlled trials evaluated the former National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step I and Step II diets in 11,586 participants.1 The Step I diet restricted intake of total fat (≤30% of total calories), saturated fat (≤10% of total calories), and cholesterol (≤300 mg/d). Step II goals were lower for saturated fat (2 The amount of soy isoflavone consumed varied across studies. One subgroup analysis showed that consumption of >80 mg/d was associated with a better effect on lipids. In subjects with baseline hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >240 mg/dL), greater reductions in total cholesterol, and greater increases in HDL were reported, with comparable changes in LDL and triglycerides. Soluble fiber: A meta-analysis of 67 good-quality RCTs evaluated the effects of soluble dietary fiber in 2990 subjects (mean baseline lipid values [mg/dL]: total cholesterol, 240.9; LDL, 164.4).3 Diets high in soluble fiber (average dose of 9.5 g/d) were associated with a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL and no significant change in HDL or triglycerides. Type of fiber (oat, psyllium, or pectin) was not influential after controlling for initial lipid level. "Portfolio" diet: A fair-quality randomized crossover study with 34 participants found that a "portfolio diet," which combines the fat intake of the NCEP Step II diet with cholesterol-lowering "functional foods" (including plant sterols, nuts, soluble fibers, and soy protein), markedly reduced total cholesterol and LDL.4 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were: total cholesterol, 261.41; LDL, 174.40; HDL, 47.56; triglycerides, 199.28. Mediterranean diet: A fair-quality RCT with 88 participants reported reduced LDL among subjects assigned to a Mediterranean-type diet.5 Mean baseline lipid values (mg/dL) were total cholesterol, 255.22; LDL, 170.15; HDL, 58.01; triglycerides, 141.71.

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