HIV stigma and specified correlates in North India

Naresh Nebhinani, Surendra Mattoo, Ajay Wanchu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Worldwide, the stigma and discrimination impede HIV-AIDS programs across the continuum of prevention to care. We studied stigma and related issues in HIV-positive subjects. Materials and Methods: At a tertiary care hospital in North India, we studied 100 HIV-positive outpatients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The subjects self-administered ′Tanzania Stigma Indicator and Community Endline-Individual Questionnaire′. Psychiatric morbidity was screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-I2 Hindi) and diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results: A typical subject was middle aged (25-44 years, 77%), school non-completer (63%), village dweller (61%), and male (59%). Only 35 subjects could differentiate between HIV and AIDS, and only 24 were aware of antiretroviral therapy. Unprotected sex, sharing injections, and blood transfusions were reported spontaneously as possible sources of transmission by 56-79% subjects each. About 80% of subjects reported no fear in touching HIV-positive subjects or their objects. Avoiding injections, being faithful to uninfected partner, avoiding blood transfusions, using condoms, and avoiding sharing razors/blades were reported spontaneously as HIV preventive measures by 40 to 26 subjects each. Half of the subjects blamed self for contracting HIV. Only 38 subjects reported others behaving differently with HIV-positive subjects. HIV status disclosure was reported by 98 subjects (73 to family or relatives). Urban subjects reported higher primary stigma and shame or blame. Psychiatric disorders, present in 45 subjects, showed no association with stigma items. Conclusions: The subjects had a limited knowledge, especially of treatment aspects. Stigma showed no association with psychiatric disorders. The study reflects a strong need for public health measures to enhance awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-331
Number of pages8
JournalIndian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2012

Fingerprint

India
HIV
Psychiatry
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Blood Transfusion
Unsafe Sex
Shame
Injections
Tanzania
Disclosure
Condoms
Tertiary Healthcare
Tertiary Care Centers
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Fear
Outpatients
Therapeutics
Public Health
Interviews
Morbidity

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Blame
  • Discrimination
  • HIV
  • Shame
  • Stigma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

HIV stigma and specified correlates in North India. / Nebhinani, Naresh; Mattoo, Surendra; Wanchu, Ajay.

In: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 4, 10.2012, p. 324-331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nebhinani, Naresh ; Mattoo, Surendra ; Wanchu, Ajay. / HIV stigma and specified correlates in North India. In: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 34, No. 4. pp. 324-331.
@article{0ac6c798b4514935b84527de4415ad26,
title = "HIV stigma and specified correlates in North India",
abstract = "Background: Worldwide, the stigma and discrimination impede HIV-AIDS programs across the continuum of prevention to care. We studied stigma and related issues in HIV-positive subjects. Materials and Methods: At a tertiary care hospital in North India, we studied 100 HIV-positive outpatients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The subjects self-administered ′Tanzania Stigma Indicator and Community Endline-Individual Questionnaire′. Psychiatric morbidity was screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-I2 Hindi) and diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results: A typical subject was middle aged (25-44 years, 77{\%}), school non-completer (63{\%}), village dweller (61{\%}), and male (59{\%}). Only 35 subjects could differentiate between HIV and AIDS, and only 24 were aware of antiretroviral therapy. Unprotected sex, sharing injections, and blood transfusions were reported spontaneously as possible sources of transmission by 56-79{\%} subjects each. About 80{\%} of subjects reported no fear in touching HIV-positive subjects or their objects. Avoiding injections, being faithful to uninfected partner, avoiding blood transfusions, using condoms, and avoiding sharing razors/blades were reported spontaneously as HIV preventive measures by 40 to 26 subjects each. Half of the subjects blamed self for contracting HIV. Only 38 subjects reported others behaving differently with HIV-positive subjects. HIV status disclosure was reported by 98 subjects (73 to family or relatives). Urban subjects reported higher primary stigma and shame or blame. Psychiatric disorders, present in 45 subjects, showed no association with stigma items. Conclusions: The subjects had a limited knowledge, especially of treatment aspects. Stigma showed no association with psychiatric disorders. The study reflects a strong need for public health measures to enhance awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS.",
keywords = "AIDS, Blame, Discrimination, HIV, Shame, Stigma",
author = "Naresh Nebhinani and Surendra Mattoo and Ajay Wanchu",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
doi = "10.4103/0253-7176.108203",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "324--331",
journal = "Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine",
issn = "0253-7176",
publisher = "Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - HIV stigma and specified correlates in North India

AU - Nebhinani, Naresh

AU - Mattoo, Surendra

AU - Wanchu, Ajay

PY - 2012/10

Y1 - 2012/10

N2 - Background: Worldwide, the stigma and discrimination impede HIV-AIDS programs across the continuum of prevention to care. We studied stigma and related issues in HIV-positive subjects. Materials and Methods: At a tertiary care hospital in North India, we studied 100 HIV-positive outpatients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The subjects self-administered ′Tanzania Stigma Indicator and Community Endline-Individual Questionnaire′. Psychiatric morbidity was screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-I2 Hindi) and diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results: A typical subject was middle aged (25-44 years, 77%), school non-completer (63%), village dweller (61%), and male (59%). Only 35 subjects could differentiate between HIV and AIDS, and only 24 were aware of antiretroviral therapy. Unprotected sex, sharing injections, and blood transfusions were reported spontaneously as possible sources of transmission by 56-79% subjects each. About 80% of subjects reported no fear in touching HIV-positive subjects or their objects. Avoiding injections, being faithful to uninfected partner, avoiding blood transfusions, using condoms, and avoiding sharing razors/blades were reported spontaneously as HIV preventive measures by 40 to 26 subjects each. Half of the subjects blamed self for contracting HIV. Only 38 subjects reported others behaving differently with HIV-positive subjects. HIV status disclosure was reported by 98 subjects (73 to family or relatives). Urban subjects reported higher primary stigma and shame or blame. Psychiatric disorders, present in 45 subjects, showed no association with stigma items. Conclusions: The subjects had a limited knowledge, especially of treatment aspects. Stigma showed no association with psychiatric disorders. The study reflects a strong need for public health measures to enhance awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS.

AB - Background: Worldwide, the stigma and discrimination impede HIV-AIDS programs across the continuum of prevention to care. We studied stigma and related issues in HIV-positive subjects. Materials and Methods: At a tertiary care hospital in North India, we studied 100 HIV-positive outpatients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The subjects self-administered ′Tanzania Stigma Indicator and Community Endline-Individual Questionnaire′. Psychiatric morbidity was screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-I2 Hindi) and diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results: A typical subject was middle aged (25-44 years, 77%), school non-completer (63%), village dweller (61%), and male (59%). Only 35 subjects could differentiate between HIV and AIDS, and only 24 were aware of antiretroviral therapy. Unprotected sex, sharing injections, and blood transfusions were reported spontaneously as possible sources of transmission by 56-79% subjects each. About 80% of subjects reported no fear in touching HIV-positive subjects or their objects. Avoiding injections, being faithful to uninfected partner, avoiding blood transfusions, using condoms, and avoiding sharing razors/blades were reported spontaneously as HIV preventive measures by 40 to 26 subjects each. Half of the subjects blamed self for contracting HIV. Only 38 subjects reported others behaving differently with HIV-positive subjects. HIV status disclosure was reported by 98 subjects (73 to family or relatives). Urban subjects reported higher primary stigma and shame or blame. Psychiatric disorders, present in 45 subjects, showed no association with stigma items. Conclusions: The subjects had a limited knowledge, especially of treatment aspects. Stigma showed no association with psychiatric disorders. The study reflects a strong need for public health measures to enhance awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS.

KW - AIDS

KW - Blame

KW - Discrimination

KW - HIV

KW - Shame

KW - Stigma

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84875959435&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84875959435&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4103/0253-7176.108203

DO - 10.4103/0253-7176.108203

M3 - Article

C2 - 23723539

AN - SCOPUS:84875959435

VL - 34

SP - 324

EP - 331

JO - Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine

JF - Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine

SN - 0253-7176

IS - 4

ER -