Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the instantaneous biological response of canine myocardium in vivo to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, and thereby determine the feasibility of this method. Methods: Left ventricle myocardium HIFU ablation was performed on six dogs at four levels of HIFU energy (acoustic intensity was 3000 W/cm2; ablation durations were 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8 sec, respectively). Gross lesion volumes were confirmed and assessed by tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and electron microscopy. Global cardiac function and focal wall motion were evaluated by echocardiography. Blood enzymes and cardiac troponin T (CTnT) were tested after ablation. HIFU ablation was repeated on another set of six fresh canine hearts in vitro at the same four energy levels. Focal maximum temperatures were detected both in vivo and in vitro. Results: Different sizes of ablation via HIFU can be created in beating hearts using controlled energy emission. Focal maximum temperatures varied from 62 ± 4.8°C to 81 ± 12.9°C. The lesion sizes were significantly smaller in vivo than in vitro, as verified by TTC and HE staining. Focal wall motion immediately decreased after ablation (P < 0.05), although the ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were unchanged (P > 0.05). Enzymes and CTnT immediately increased. Conclusion: HIFU can be used for the controllable ablation of myocardial tissue, with instantly increased serum markers, decreased regional wall motion, and unaffected left ventricular global function. (Echocardiography 2014;31:1146-1153).
- Cardiac ablation
- High-intensity focused ultrasound
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine