Heterogeneity in development of aspects of working memory predicts longitudinal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom change

Sarah Karalunas, Hanna C. Gustafsson, Nathan Dieckmann, Jessica Tipsord, Suzanne Mitchell, Joel Nigg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. Method: The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n =437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change. Results: Best-fitting models indicated multiple trajectory classes in both the ADHD and typically developing samples, as well as distinct relationships between each cognitive process and ADHD symptom change. Developmental change in response inhibition and delayed reward discounting were unrelated to ADHD symptom change, while individual differences in the rate of visual spatial working memory maintenance improvement predicted symptom remission in ADHD. Conclusion: Characterizing heterogeneity in cognitive development will be crucial for clarifying mechanisms of symptom persistence and recovery. Results here suggest working memory maintenance may be uniquely related to ADHD symptom improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)774-792
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Abnormal Psychology
Volume126
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

Fingerprint

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Short-Term Memory
Maintenance
Reward
Working Memory
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Individuality
Trajectory
Growth

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Delay discounting
  • Executive function
  • Longitudinal
  • Working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

@article{50df47e3db0648228cb6229262ee4848,
title = "Heterogeneity in development of aspects of working memory predicts longitudinal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom change",
abstract = "The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. Method: The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n =437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change. Results: Best-fitting models indicated multiple trajectory classes in both the ADHD and typically developing samples, as well as distinct relationships between each cognitive process and ADHD symptom change. Developmental change in response inhibition and delayed reward discounting were unrelated to ADHD symptom change, while individual differences in the rate of visual spatial working memory maintenance improvement predicted symptom remission in ADHD. Conclusion: Characterizing heterogeneity in cognitive development will be crucial for clarifying mechanisms of symptom persistence and recovery. Results here suggest working memory maintenance may be uniquely related to ADHD symptom improvement.",
keywords = "ADHD, Delay discounting, Executive function, Longitudinal, Working memory",
author = "Sarah Karalunas and Gustafsson, {Hanna C.} and Nathan Dieckmann and Jessica Tipsord and Suzanne Mitchell and Joel Nigg",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/abn0000292",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "126",
pages = "774--792",
journal = "Journal of Abnormal Psychology",
issn = "0021-843X",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heterogeneity in development of aspects of working memory predicts longitudinal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom change

AU - Karalunas, Sarah

AU - Gustafsson, Hanna C.

AU - Dieckmann, Nathan

AU - Tipsord, Jessica

AU - Mitchell, Suzanne

AU - Nigg, Joel

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. Method: The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n =437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change. Results: Best-fitting models indicated multiple trajectory classes in both the ADHD and typically developing samples, as well as distinct relationships between each cognitive process and ADHD symptom change. Developmental change in response inhibition and delayed reward discounting were unrelated to ADHD symptom change, while individual differences in the rate of visual spatial working memory maintenance improvement predicted symptom remission in ADHD. Conclusion: Characterizing heterogeneity in cognitive development will be crucial for clarifying mechanisms of symptom persistence and recovery. Results here suggest working memory maintenance may be uniquely related to ADHD symptom improvement.

AB - The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. Method: The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n =437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change. Results: Best-fitting models indicated multiple trajectory classes in both the ADHD and typically developing samples, as well as distinct relationships between each cognitive process and ADHD symptom change. Developmental change in response inhibition and delayed reward discounting were unrelated to ADHD symptom change, while individual differences in the rate of visual spatial working memory maintenance improvement predicted symptom remission in ADHD. Conclusion: Characterizing heterogeneity in cognitive development will be crucial for clarifying mechanisms of symptom persistence and recovery. Results here suggest working memory maintenance may be uniquely related to ADHD symptom improvement.

KW - ADHD

KW - Delay discounting

KW - Executive function

KW - Longitudinal

KW - Working memory

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85027095779&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85027095779&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/abn0000292

DO - 10.1037/abn0000292

M3 - Article

C2 - 28782975

AN - SCOPUS:85027095779

VL - 126

SP - 774

EP - 792

JO - Journal of Abnormal Psychology

JF - Journal of Abnormal Psychology

SN - 0021-843X

IS - 6

ER -