Hepatic ultrasonic changs in workers exposed to perchloroethylene

C. A. Brodkin, W. Daniell, H. Checkoway, D. Echeverria, J. Johnson, K. Wang, Roya Sohaey, D. Green, C. Redlich, D. Gretch, L. Rosenstock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To determine if subclinical hepatotoxicity is associated with exposure to perchloroethylene at concentrations commonly experienced in the workplace, and whether surveillance with serum hepatic transaminase activity underestimates such effects. Methods - Hepatic parenchymal echogenicity on ultrasonography and serum hepatic transaminase activity were compared in 29 community based dry cleaning operators exposed to perchloroethylene, and a control group of 29 non-exposed laundry workers. Perchloroethylene exposure was assessed by work history and air monitoring. Results - Mean hepatic transaminase activities were minimally increased in dry cleaners compared with laundry workers. Increased alanine aminotransferase activities, between 1.0 and 1.5 times the normal limits, were found in five of 27 (19%) dry cleaners compared with one of 26 (4%) laundry workers. In contrast, diffuse parenchymal changes in echogenicity, as determined by hepatic ultrasonography, were increased nearly twofold in dry cleaners, occurring in 18 of 27 (67%) dry cleaners compared with 10 of 26 (39%) laundry workers (P <0.05), and were most strongly associated with increased perchloroethylene exposure in older dry to dry or wet transfer operations (odds ratio 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-15.3). Mean eight hour time weighted average perchloroethylene exposure for dry cleaners was 16 ppm, which is less than the permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm in the United States. Conclusions - It was concluded that mild to moderate hepatic parenchymal changes occur more frequently in workers exposed to perchloroethylene than in populations not exposed to chemical solvents, and that these effects are underestimated by serum hepatic transaminase activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)679-685
Number of pages7
JournalOccupational and Environmental Medicine
Volume52
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Tetrachloroethylene
tetrachloroethylene
Ultrasonics
Transaminases
Liver
serum
Ultrasonography
Serum
workplace
confidence interval
Alanine Transaminase
Workplace
Odds Ratio
Air
Confidence Intervals
exposure
air
Control Groups
monitoring
history

Keywords

  • Aminotransferases
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Perchloroethylene
  • Ultrasonic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Brodkin, C. A., Daniell, W., Checkoway, H., Echeverria, D., Johnson, J., Wang, K., ... Rosenstock, L. (1995). Hepatic ultrasonic changs in workers exposed to perchloroethylene. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52(10), 679-685.

Hepatic ultrasonic changs in workers exposed to perchloroethylene. / Brodkin, C. A.; Daniell, W.; Checkoway, H.; Echeverria, D.; Johnson, J.; Wang, K.; Sohaey, Roya; Green, D.; Redlich, C.; Gretch, D.; Rosenstock, L.

In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 52, No. 10, 1995, p. 679-685.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brodkin, CA, Daniell, W, Checkoway, H, Echeverria, D, Johnson, J, Wang, K, Sohaey, R, Green, D, Redlich, C, Gretch, D & Rosenstock, L 1995, 'Hepatic ultrasonic changs in workers exposed to perchloroethylene', Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 679-685.
Brodkin CA, Daniell W, Checkoway H, Echeverria D, Johnson J, Wang K et al. Hepatic ultrasonic changs in workers exposed to perchloroethylene. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1995;52(10):679-685.
Brodkin, C. A. ; Daniell, W. ; Checkoway, H. ; Echeverria, D. ; Johnson, J. ; Wang, K. ; Sohaey, Roya ; Green, D. ; Redlich, C. ; Gretch, D. ; Rosenstock, L. / Hepatic ultrasonic changs in workers exposed to perchloroethylene. In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1995 ; Vol. 52, No. 10. pp. 679-685.
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abstract = "Objective - To determine if subclinical hepatotoxicity is associated with exposure to perchloroethylene at concentrations commonly experienced in the workplace, and whether surveillance with serum hepatic transaminase activity underestimates such effects. Methods - Hepatic parenchymal echogenicity on ultrasonography and serum hepatic transaminase activity were compared in 29 community based dry cleaning operators exposed to perchloroethylene, and a control group of 29 non-exposed laundry workers. Perchloroethylene exposure was assessed by work history and air monitoring. Results - Mean hepatic transaminase activities were minimally increased in dry cleaners compared with laundry workers. Increased alanine aminotransferase activities, between 1.0 and 1.5 times the normal limits, were found in five of 27 (19{\%}) dry cleaners compared with one of 26 (4{\%}) laundry workers. In contrast, diffuse parenchymal changes in echogenicity, as determined by hepatic ultrasonography, were increased nearly twofold in dry cleaners, occurring in 18 of 27 (67{\%}) dry cleaners compared with 10 of 26 (39{\%}) laundry workers (P <0.05), and were most strongly associated with increased perchloroethylene exposure in older dry to dry or wet transfer operations (odds ratio 4.2, 95{\%} confidence interval 1.1-15.3). Mean eight hour time weighted average perchloroethylene exposure for dry cleaners was 16 ppm, which is less than the permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm in the United States. Conclusions - It was concluded that mild to moderate hepatic parenchymal changes occur more frequently in workers exposed to perchloroethylene than in populations not exposed to chemical solvents, and that these effects are underestimated by serum hepatic transaminase activity.",
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AU - Johnson, J.

AU - Wang, K.

AU - Sohaey, Roya

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AU - Gretch, D.

AU - Rosenstock, L.

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N2 - Objective - To determine if subclinical hepatotoxicity is associated with exposure to perchloroethylene at concentrations commonly experienced in the workplace, and whether surveillance with serum hepatic transaminase activity underestimates such effects. Methods - Hepatic parenchymal echogenicity on ultrasonography and serum hepatic transaminase activity were compared in 29 community based dry cleaning operators exposed to perchloroethylene, and a control group of 29 non-exposed laundry workers. Perchloroethylene exposure was assessed by work history and air monitoring. Results - Mean hepatic transaminase activities were minimally increased in dry cleaners compared with laundry workers. Increased alanine aminotransferase activities, between 1.0 and 1.5 times the normal limits, were found in five of 27 (19%) dry cleaners compared with one of 26 (4%) laundry workers. In contrast, diffuse parenchymal changes in echogenicity, as determined by hepatic ultrasonography, were increased nearly twofold in dry cleaners, occurring in 18 of 27 (67%) dry cleaners compared with 10 of 26 (39%) laundry workers (P <0.05), and were most strongly associated with increased perchloroethylene exposure in older dry to dry or wet transfer operations (odds ratio 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-15.3). Mean eight hour time weighted average perchloroethylene exposure for dry cleaners was 16 ppm, which is less than the permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm in the United States. Conclusions - It was concluded that mild to moderate hepatic parenchymal changes occur more frequently in workers exposed to perchloroethylene than in populations not exposed to chemical solvents, and that these effects are underestimated by serum hepatic transaminase activity.

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