Among patients with hepatic iron overload, the distinction between hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), a common yet treatable genetic disease, and other causes of siderosis remains problematic. The recent discovery of a specific homozygous mutation (C282Y) in a novel major histocompatibility complex class I-like gene (named HLA-H or HFE) in 80% to 100% of well- characterized cases of HH suggests that direct DNA-based mutation analysis may help resolve this dilemma. To assess the clinical utility of direct HLA- H mutation analysis in a typical diagnostic setting, we measured genotypic and phenotypic parameters of iron overload in 37 subjects with biopsy-proven hepatic siderosis (2+ or greater) and in 127 healthy control subjects. The prevalence of C282Y homozygotes was significantly greater in the hepatic siderosis group (32%) than in the control group (0%), confirming the association between this homozygous mutation and hepatic iron overload. In the hepatic siderosis group, C282Y homozygotes had significantly higher hepatic iron and ferritin levels, a significantly lower prevalence of hepatitis C virus or alcoholic liver disease, but no significant difference in the saturation of serum transferrin. Of the 20 subjects with a hepatic iron index (HII) in the previously defined 'hemochromatosis range' (>1.9), 9 (45%) were C282Y homozygotes. Of the 11 nonhomozygous subjects with an HII greater than 1.9 (presumed false-positive HIIs), 10 (91%) had hepatic cirrhosis compared with 3 of 9 (33%) homozygotes with an HII greater than 1.9 who had cirrhosis (P<.02). The HII thus has poor diagnostic specificity for predicting genotypic HH in patients with cirrhosis. We conclude that direct determination of the HLA-H C282Y genotype may be the single best diagnostic test for HH, particularly in patients with cirrhosis, for whom the HII is quite nonspecific.
- HLA antigens
- Iron overload
- Liver cirrhosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine