Laparoscopic procedures requiring abdominal CO2 insufflation are applied with increasing frequency to the pediatric age group. Whereas the physiological effects accompanying insufflation have been studied in laboratory and clinical adult subjects, little is known of these effects in the juvenile subject. Young swine (weight, 10 to 12 kg, approximate age, 6 weeks) were subjected to abdominal CO2 insufflation at 10 and 15-mm Hg insufflation pressures (IP) to evaluate potential metabolic and hemodynamic effects. After intubation, minute ventilation was adjusted to obtain a baseline Pco2 between 38 and 42 mm Hg, and was kept constant during the subsequent study period. Four subjects underwent a total of eight trials, with insufflation periods of 1 hour each. Serial measurements of peak ventilatory pressure, tidal volume, end tidal CO2 arterial pH, Pco2, Po2, right atrial (RA), and inferior vena caval (IVC) pressure were obtained. Mean pH decreased from 7.45 ± 0.03 to 7.22 ± 0.03 at 10 mm Hg IP, and from 7.44 ± 0.01 to 7.19 ± 0.03 at 15 mm Hg IP. Mean Pco2 increased from 39.9 ± 0.4 to 70.0 ± 1.0 mm Hg at 10 mm Hg IP, and from 39.9 ± 0.5 to 76.8 ± 1.6 mm Hg at 15 mm Hg IP. Po2 decreased by approximately 37% at both IPs. End-tidal CO2 increased by 53% at 10 mm Hg IP, and by 68% at 15 mm Hg IP. Right atrial pressure did not increase significantly, and IVC pressure increased in proportion to the IP. Abdominal CO2 insufflation in this model produced marked acidemia, hypercapnia, decreased oxygenation, and increased exhaled CO2. Decreasing insufflation pressure to 10 mm Hg decreased Pco2 but did not alter pH or Po2. Close monitoring of blood gas values during laparoscopy is warranted to allow appropriate adjustment of minute ventilation.
- abdominal insufflation
- ventilatory effects
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health