Lupus anticoagulants (LACs) are immunoglobulins that interfere with in vitro phospholipid-dependent coagulation tests. Initially recognized in the context of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), LACs are now known to occur frequently in patients with other disorders, as well as in individuals with no apparent underlying disease. It is now recognized that LACs and anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) are separate entities, but both are members of a diverse group of immunoglobulins that bind to phospholipid-bound proteins including, but not limited to, β2-glycoprotein-I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. LACs and ACAs are both associated with a high risk of arterial and venous thromboembolicevents, although the mechanism of this thrombotic risk is still unknown. In this chapter the term "anti-phospholipid antibody (APL)" is used to denote the presence of a LAC and/or ACA. The chapter discusses the diagnosis of LACs, the possible thrombotic mechanisms associated with APLs, and the treatment of thrombosis in patients with APLs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)