Growth factor receptor-Src-mediated suppression of GRK6 dysregulates CXCR4 signaling and promotes medulloblastoma migration

Liangping Yuan, Hongying Zhang, Jingbo Liu, Joshua B. Rubin, Yoon-Jae Cho, Hui Kuo Shu, Matthew Schniederjan, Tobey J. MacDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Metastasis in medulloblastoma (MB) is associated with poor survival. Recent genetic studies revealed MB to comprise distinct molecular subgroups, including the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup that exhibits a relatively high rate of progression. To identify targeted therapeutics against metastasis, a better understanding of the regulation of MB cell migration is needed. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been implicated in cancer metastasis through their regulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in growth factor (GF)-mediated cell migration. However, the specific roles and regulation of GRKs in MB have not been investigated.Methods: Microarray mRNA analysis was performed for GRKs, GPCRs, and GFs in 29 human MB, and real time RT-PCR was used to detect GRK6 expression in MB cells. Lenti- or retro-virus infection, and siRNA or shRNA transfection, of MB cells was used to overexpress and knockdown target genes, respectively. Western blot was used to confirm altered expression of proteins. The effect of altered target protein on cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay and xCELLigence migration assays.Results: We observed co-overexpression of PDGFRA, CXCR4, and CXCL12 in the SHH MB subtype compared to non-SHH MB (5, 7, and 5-fold higher, respectively). GRK6, which typically acts as a negative regulator of CXCR4 signaling, is downregulated in MB, relative to other GRKs, while the percentage of GRK6 expression is lower in MB tumors with metastasis (22%), compared to those without metastasis (43%). In SHH-responsive MB cells, functional blockade of PDGFR abolished CXCR4-mediated signaling. shPDGFR transfected MB cells demonstrated increased GRK6 expression, while PDGF or 10% FBS treatment of native MB cells reduced the stability of GRK6 by inducing its proteosomal degradation. Overexpression or downregulation of Src, a key mediator of GF receptor/PDGFR signaling, similarly inhibited or induced GRK6 expression, respectively. siRNA downregulation of GRK6 enhanced CXCR4 signaling and promoted MB migration, while lentiviral-GRK6 overexpression suppressed CXCR4 signaling, potentiated the effect of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, and impaired migration.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of GF receptor/PDGFR-Src-mediated dysregulation of CXCR4 signaling that promotes MB cell migration, which could potentially be exploited for therapeutic targeting in SHH MB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18
JournalMolecular Cancer
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 5 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Medulloblastoma
Growth Factor Receptors
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases
Cell Movement
Neoplasm Metastasis
Small Interfering RNA
Down-Regulation
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Virus Diseases
Microarray Analysis

Keywords

  • CXCR4
  • GRK6
  • Growth factor receptor
  • Medullobastoma
  • PDGFR
  • Src

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Growth factor receptor-Src-mediated suppression of GRK6 dysregulates CXCR4 signaling and promotes medulloblastoma migration. / Yuan, Liangping; Zhang, Hongying; Liu, Jingbo; Rubin, Joshua B.; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Shu, Hui Kuo; Schniederjan, Matthew; MacDonald, Tobey J.

In: Molecular Cancer, Vol. 12, No. 1, 18, 05.03.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yuan, Liangping ; Zhang, Hongying ; Liu, Jingbo ; Rubin, Joshua B. ; Cho, Yoon-Jae ; Shu, Hui Kuo ; Schniederjan, Matthew ; MacDonald, Tobey J. / Growth factor receptor-Src-mediated suppression of GRK6 dysregulates CXCR4 signaling and promotes medulloblastoma migration. In: Molecular Cancer. 2013 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Metastasis in medulloblastoma (MB) is associated with poor survival. Recent genetic studies revealed MB to comprise distinct molecular subgroups, including the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup that exhibits a relatively high rate of progression. To identify targeted therapeutics against metastasis, a better understanding of the regulation of MB cell migration is needed. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been implicated in cancer metastasis through their regulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in growth factor (GF)-mediated cell migration. However, the specific roles and regulation of GRKs in MB have not been investigated.Methods: Microarray mRNA analysis was performed for GRKs, GPCRs, and GFs in 29 human MB, and real time RT-PCR was used to detect GRK6 expression in MB cells. Lenti- or retro-virus infection, and siRNA or shRNA transfection, of MB cells was used to overexpress and knockdown target genes, respectively. Western blot was used to confirm altered expression of proteins. The effect of altered target protein on cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay and xCELLigence migration assays.Results: We observed co-overexpression of PDGFRA, CXCR4, and CXCL12 in the SHH MB subtype compared to non-SHH MB (5, 7, and 5-fold higher, respectively). GRK6, which typically acts as a negative regulator of CXCR4 signaling, is downregulated in MB, relative to other GRKs, while the percentage of GRK6 expression is lower in MB tumors with metastasis (22{\%}), compared to those without metastasis (43{\%}). In SHH-responsive MB cells, functional blockade of PDGFR abolished CXCR4-mediated signaling. shPDGFR transfected MB cells demonstrated increased GRK6 expression, while PDGF or 10{\%} FBS treatment of native MB cells reduced the stability of GRK6 by inducing its proteosomal degradation. Overexpression or downregulation of Src, a key mediator of GF receptor/PDGFR signaling, similarly inhibited or induced GRK6 expression, respectively. siRNA downregulation of GRK6 enhanced CXCR4 signaling and promoted MB migration, while lentiviral-GRK6 overexpression suppressed CXCR4 signaling, potentiated the effect of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, and impaired migration.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of GF receptor/PDGFR-Src-mediated dysregulation of CXCR4 signaling that promotes MB cell migration, which could potentially be exploited for therapeutic targeting in SHH MB.",
keywords = "CXCR4, GRK6, Growth factor receptor, Medullobastoma, PDGFR, Src",
author = "Liangping Yuan and Hongying Zhang and Jingbo Liu and Rubin, {Joshua B.} and Yoon-Jae Cho and Shu, {Hui Kuo} and Matthew Schniederjan and MacDonald, {Tobey J.}",
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AU - Yuan, Liangping

AU - Zhang, Hongying

AU - Liu, Jingbo

AU - Rubin, Joshua B.

AU - Cho, Yoon-Jae

AU - Shu, Hui Kuo

AU - Schniederjan, Matthew

AU - MacDonald, Tobey J.

PY - 2013/3/5

Y1 - 2013/3/5

N2 - Background: Metastasis in medulloblastoma (MB) is associated with poor survival. Recent genetic studies revealed MB to comprise distinct molecular subgroups, including the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup that exhibits a relatively high rate of progression. To identify targeted therapeutics against metastasis, a better understanding of the regulation of MB cell migration is needed. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been implicated in cancer metastasis through their regulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in growth factor (GF)-mediated cell migration. However, the specific roles and regulation of GRKs in MB have not been investigated.Methods: Microarray mRNA analysis was performed for GRKs, GPCRs, and GFs in 29 human MB, and real time RT-PCR was used to detect GRK6 expression in MB cells. Lenti- or retro-virus infection, and siRNA or shRNA transfection, of MB cells was used to overexpress and knockdown target genes, respectively. Western blot was used to confirm altered expression of proteins. The effect of altered target protein on cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay and xCELLigence migration assays.Results: We observed co-overexpression of PDGFRA, CXCR4, and CXCL12 in the SHH MB subtype compared to non-SHH MB (5, 7, and 5-fold higher, respectively). GRK6, which typically acts as a negative regulator of CXCR4 signaling, is downregulated in MB, relative to other GRKs, while the percentage of GRK6 expression is lower in MB tumors with metastasis (22%), compared to those without metastasis (43%). In SHH-responsive MB cells, functional blockade of PDGFR abolished CXCR4-mediated signaling. shPDGFR transfected MB cells demonstrated increased GRK6 expression, while PDGF or 10% FBS treatment of native MB cells reduced the stability of GRK6 by inducing its proteosomal degradation. Overexpression or downregulation of Src, a key mediator of GF receptor/PDGFR signaling, similarly inhibited or induced GRK6 expression, respectively. siRNA downregulation of GRK6 enhanced CXCR4 signaling and promoted MB migration, while lentiviral-GRK6 overexpression suppressed CXCR4 signaling, potentiated the effect of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, and impaired migration.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of GF receptor/PDGFR-Src-mediated dysregulation of CXCR4 signaling that promotes MB cell migration, which could potentially be exploited for therapeutic targeting in SHH MB.

AB - Background: Metastasis in medulloblastoma (MB) is associated with poor survival. Recent genetic studies revealed MB to comprise distinct molecular subgroups, including the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup that exhibits a relatively high rate of progression. To identify targeted therapeutics against metastasis, a better understanding of the regulation of MB cell migration is needed. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been implicated in cancer metastasis through their regulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in growth factor (GF)-mediated cell migration. However, the specific roles and regulation of GRKs in MB have not been investigated.Methods: Microarray mRNA analysis was performed for GRKs, GPCRs, and GFs in 29 human MB, and real time RT-PCR was used to detect GRK6 expression in MB cells. Lenti- or retro-virus infection, and siRNA or shRNA transfection, of MB cells was used to overexpress and knockdown target genes, respectively. Western blot was used to confirm altered expression of proteins. The effect of altered target protein on cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay and xCELLigence migration assays.Results: We observed co-overexpression of PDGFRA, CXCR4, and CXCL12 in the SHH MB subtype compared to non-SHH MB (5, 7, and 5-fold higher, respectively). GRK6, which typically acts as a negative regulator of CXCR4 signaling, is downregulated in MB, relative to other GRKs, while the percentage of GRK6 expression is lower in MB tumors with metastasis (22%), compared to those without metastasis (43%). In SHH-responsive MB cells, functional blockade of PDGFR abolished CXCR4-mediated signaling. shPDGFR transfected MB cells demonstrated increased GRK6 expression, while PDGF or 10% FBS treatment of native MB cells reduced the stability of GRK6 by inducing its proteosomal degradation. Overexpression or downregulation of Src, a key mediator of GF receptor/PDGFR signaling, similarly inhibited or induced GRK6 expression, respectively. siRNA downregulation of GRK6 enhanced CXCR4 signaling and promoted MB migration, while lentiviral-GRK6 overexpression suppressed CXCR4 signaling, potentiated the effect of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, and impaired migration.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of GF receptor/PDGFR-Src-mediated dysregulation of CXCR4 signaling that promotes MB cell migration, which could potentially be exploited for therapeutic targeting in SHH MB.

KW - CXCR4

KW - GRK6

KW - Growth factor receptor

KW - Medullobastoma

KW - PDGFR

KW - Src

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