Glia and neurodevelopment: Focus on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Marina Guizzetti, Xiaolu Zhang, Calla Goeke, David P. Gavin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

51 Scopus citations

Abstract

During the last 20 years, new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the developing brain and it is becoming apparent that the effects of fetal alcohol are due, at least in part, to effects on glial cells affecting their ability to modulate neuronal development and function. The three major classes of glial cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia as well as their precursors are affected by ethanol during brain development. Alterations in glial cell functions by ethanol dramatically affect neuronal development, survival, and function and ultimately impair the development of the proper brain architecture and connectivity. For instance, ethanol inhibits astrocyte-mediated neuritogenesis and oligodendrocyte development, survival and myelination; furthermore, ethanol induces microglia activation and oxidative stress leading to the exacerbation of ethanol-induced neuronal cell death. This review article describes the most significant recent findings pertaining the effects of ethanol on glial cells and their significance in the pathophysiology of FASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Volume2
Issue numberNOV
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Astrocytes
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
  • Glia
  • Microglia
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Oligodendrocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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