Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of both benign and malignant gestational tumors, including hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The latter four entities are referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). These conditions are aggressive with a propensity to widely metastasize. GTN can result in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Early diagnosis of GTD is essential for prompt and successful management while preserving fertility. Initial diagnosis of GTD is based on a multifactorial approach consisting of clinical features, serial quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) titers, and imaging findings. Ultrasonography (US) is the modality of choice for initial diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole and can provide an invaluable means of local surveillance after treatment. The performance of US in diagnosing all molar pregnancies is surprisingly poor, predominantly due to the difficulty in differentiating partial hydatidiform mole from nonmolar abortion and retained products of conception. While GTN after a molar pregnancy is usually diagnosed with serial β-hCG titers, imaging plays an important role in evaluation of local extent of disease and systemic surveillance. Imaging also plays a crucial role in detection and management of complications, such as uterine and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. Familiarity with the pathogenesis, classification, imaging features, and treatment of these tumors can aid in radiologic diagnosis and guide appropriate management.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging