Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a distinct myeloproliferative neoplasm with a high prevalence (>80%) of mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R). These mutations activate the receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are a hallmark of CNL. Recently, the World Health Organization guidelines have been updated to include CSF3R mutations as part of the diagnostic criteria for CNL. Because of the high prevalence of CSF3R mutations in CNL, it is tempting to think of this disease as being solely driven by this genetic lesion. However, recent additional genomic characterization demonstrates that CNL has much in common with other chronic myeloid malignancies at the genetic level, such as the clinically related diagnosis atypical chronic myeloid leukemia. These commonalities include mutations in SETBP1, spliceosome proteins (SRSF2, U2AF1), and epigenetic modifiers (TET2, ASXL1). Some of these same mutations also have been characterized as frequent events in clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, suggesting a more complex disease evolution than was previously understood and raising the possibility that an age-related clonal process of preleukemic cells could precedethe development of CNL. Theorder of acquisition ofCSF3Rmutations relative to mutations in SETBP1, epigenetic modifiers, or the spliceosome has been determined only in isolated case reports; thus, further work is needed to understand the impact of mutation chronology on the clonal evolutionand progression of CNL. Understanding the complete landscape and chronology of genomic events in CNL will help in the development of improved therapeutic strategies for this patient population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology