Genetic evidence for role of carotenoids in age-related macular degeneration in the carotenoids in age-related eye disease study (CAREDS)

Kristin J. Meyers, Julie A. Mares, Robert P. Igo, Barbara Truitt, Zhe Liu, Amy E. Millen, Michael Klein, Elizabeth J. Johnson, Corinne D. Engelman, Chitra K. Karki, Barbara Blodi, Karen Gehrs, Lesley Tinker, Robert Wallace, Jennifer Robinson, Erin S. LeBlanc, Gloria Sarto, Paul S. Bernstein, John Paul SanGiovanni, Sudha K. Iyengar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose. We tested variants in genes related to lutein and zeaxanthin status for association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Methods. Of 2005 CAREDS participants, 1663 were graded for AMD from fundus photography and genotyped for 424 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 24 candidate genes for carotenoid status. Of 337 AMD cases 91% had early or intermediate AMD. The SNPs were tested individually for association with AMD using logistic regression. A carotenoid-related genetic risk model was built using backward selection and compared to existing AMD risk factors using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results. A total of 24 variants from five genes (BCMO1, BCO2, NPCL1L1, ABCG8, and FADS2) not previously related to AMD and four genes related to AMD in previous studies (SCARB1, ABCA1, APOE, and ALDH3A2) were associated independently with AMD, after adjusting for age and ancestry. Variants in all genes (not always the identical SNPs) were associated with lutein and zeaxanthin in serum and/or macula, in this or other samples, except for BCO2 and FADS2. A genetic risk score including nine variants significantly (P 1/4 0.002) discriminated between AMD cases and controls beyond age, smoking, CFH Y402H, and ARMS2 A69S. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for AMD among women in the highest versus lowest quintile for the risk score was 3.1 (2.0-4.9). Conclusions. Variants in genes related to lutein and zeaxanthin status were associated with AMD in CAREDS, adding to the body of evidence supporting a protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in risk of AMD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)587-599
Number of pages13
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume55
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 17 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Carotenoids
  • Genes
  • Macular degeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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    Meyers, K. J., Mares, J. A., Igo, R. P., Truitt, B., Liu, Z., Millen, A. E., Klein, M., Johnson, E. J., Engelman, C. D., Karki, C. K., Blodi, B., Gehrs, K., Tinker, L., Wallace, R., Robinson, J., LeBlanc, E. S., Sarto, G., Bernstein, P. S., SanGiovanni, J. P., & Iyengar, S. K. (2013). Genetic evidence for role of carotenoids in age-related macular degeneration in the carotenoids in age-related eye disease study (CAREDS). Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55(1), 587-599. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13216