Adamantinoma represents a distinct group of bone tumors showing both mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation most commonly involving the tibial diaphysis. Most adamantinomas contain a fibro-osseous component and an epithelial component consisting of squamous or basaloid cells. Adamantinomas are considered malignant neoplasms requiring en bloc excision that frequently recur locally and can rarely metastasize. Rare adamantinomas show an epithelial component consisting predominantly of monomorphic spindle cells, which, combined with an epithelial immunophenotype, can mimic monophasic synovial sarcoma. Synovial sarcoma is very rare in bone. It is considered a high-grade sarcoma that typically necessitates chemotherapy. However, the relationship between spindle cell adamantinoma and intraosseous synovial sarcoma has not been investigated. The current study was prompted by identification of a presumed spindle cell adamantinoma of the tibia with diffuse keratin expression that harbored a SS18 gene region rearrangement. FISH of eight additional bone tumors initially classified as spindle cell adamantinoma based on clinicoradiopathologic findings revealed one additional case with SS18 rearrangement. Histologically, both intraosseous synovial sarcoma and spindle cell adamantinoma demonstrated uniform fusiform nuclei with scant cytoplasm, short fascicles and low mitotic activity. The adamantinomas, but not the synovial sarcomas, were more likely to show overt epithelial differentiation in the form of pseudoglands or squamous nests. Immunohistochemistry of all cases, irrespective of SS18 status, showed diffuse keratin positivity in the spindle cell component, and less consistent EMA positivity. Clinical follow-up was available in both intraosseous synovial sarcomas, one of which recurred and the other metastasized. Two of the six spindle cell adamantinomas with follow-up metastasized. The above findings highlight the morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap between spindle cell adamantinoma and intraosseous synovial sarcoma of the tibia. Investigation of SS18 status to exclude synovial sarcoma is suggested prior to rendering a diagnosis of spindle cell adamantinoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine