Genetic analysis of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 02_AG, B and C subtype-specific envelope sequences from Northern India and their predicted co-receptor usage

Ujjwal Neogi, Vikas Sood, Arpita Chowdhury, Shukla Das, Vishnampettai G. Ramachandran, Vijesh K. Sreedhar, Ajay Wanchu, Nilanjana Ghosh, Akhil C. Banerjea

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11 Scopus citations


HIV-1 epidemic in India is largely driven by subtype C but other subtypes or recombinants have also been reported from several states of India. This is mainly due to the co-circulation of other genetic subtypes that potentially can recombine to generate recombinant/mosaic genomes. In this study, we report detail genetic characterization of HIV-1 envelope sequences from North India (Delhi and neighboring regions). Six of 13 were related to subtype C, one B and the rest six showed relatedness with CRF02_AG strain. The subtype C possessed the highly conserved GPGQ motif but subtype B possessed the GPGR motif in the V3 loop as observed earlier. While most of the sequences suggested CCR5 co-receptor usage, one subtype C sample clearly indicated CXCR4 usage. A successful mother to child transmission was established in two pairs. Thus, co-circulation of multiple subtypes (B and C) and the recombinant CRF02_AG strains in North India suggests a rapidly evolving scenario of HIV-1 epidemic in this region with impact on vaccine formulation. Since this is the first report of CRF02_AG envelope from India, it will be important to monitor the spread of this strain and its impact on HIV-1 transmission in India.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number28
JournalAIDS Research and Therapy
Publication statusPublished - Dec 3 2009
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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