Background: There are several gender differences that may help explain the link between biology and symptoms in heart failure (HF). Objective: The aim of this study was to examine gender-specific relationships between objective measures of HF severity and physical symptoms. Methods: Detailed clinical data, including left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular internal end-diastolic diameter, and HF-specific physical symptoms were collected as part of a prospective cohort study. Gender interaction terms were tested in linear regression models of physical symptoms. Results: The sample (101 women and 101 men) averaged 57 years of age and most participants (60%) had class III/IV HF. Larger left ventricle size was associated with better physical symptoms for women and worse physical symptoms for men. Conclusion: Decreased ventricular compliance may result in worse physical HF symptoms for women and dilation of the ventricle may be a greater progenitor of symptoms for men with HF.
- Heart Failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing