Frustration with feeling: Latent classes of non-suicidal self-injury and emotion regulation difficulties

Amanda L. Peterson, Jason Chen, Marc S. Karver, Christa D. Labouliere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Although emotion regulation has been identified as a key function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), it is unclear how specific indices of emotion regulation are associated with particular NSSI methods as markers of risk. This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of individuals who engage in NSSI and their patterns of emotional regulation difficulties. Undergraduate students in the southeastern United States (N = 326) completed an online survey. LCA was used to identify subgroups of individuals engaging in NSSI and their associated emotion regulation difficulties. These subgroups were then compared across a variety of behavioral health outcomes (e.g. impulsive behavior, disordered eating, problematic alcohol use, suicide attempt history) to characterize specific risk profiles. The LCA revealed four subgroups who engage in NSSI and have specific emotion regulation difficulties. These subgroups were differentially associated with behavioral health outcomes, including suicide risk, disordered eating, and impulsive behavior. Results of this research could aid in clinical identification of at-risk individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-70
Number of pages10
JournalPsychiatry Research
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2019



  • Emotions
  • Models statistical
  • Self-injurious behavior
  • Suicide
  • Suicide attempted
  • Universities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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