BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) and trauma induce endothelial barrier compromise, inflammation, and aberrant clotting. We have shown that fresh human platelets (Plts) and Plt extracellular vesicles mitigate vascular leak in murine models of injury. Here, we investigate the potential of freeze-dried platelets (FDPlts) to attenuate pulmonary vascular permeability, decrease inflammation, and promote clotting in a murine model of HS. METHODS: Human FDPlts were characterized using in vitro assays of Plt marker expression, aggregation, coagulation, and endothelial cell permeability. An intravital model of vascular injury in the mouse cremaster muscle was used to assess the ability of FDPlts to incorporate into clots. Mouse groups subjected to controlled hemorrhage for 90 minutes were (1) lactated Ringer solution (LR), (2) FDPlts, (3) fresh human Plts, (4) murine whole blood (WB), and (5) shams (only instrumented). Hemorrhagic shock mouse endpoints included coagulation, pulmonary vascular permeability, and lung injury. RESULTS: Freeze-dried Plts expressed Plt-specific markers and retained functionality similar to fresh Plts. In in vitro assays of Plt aggregation, differences were noted. In vivo, FDPlts and Plts were found to incorporate into clots in postcapillary venules in the mouse cremaster muscle. Hemorrhagic shock mice resuscitated with LR displayed increased pulmonary vascular permeability compared with sham (sham, 686.6 ± 359.7; shock-LR, 2,637 ± 954.7; p = 0.001), and treatment with FDPlts or WB attenuated permeability compared with shock: shock-FDPlts, 1,328 ± 462.6 (p = 0.05), and shock-WB, 1,024 ± 370.5 (p = 0.0108). However, human Plts (Days 1-3) did not attenuate vascular leak in HS mice compared with shock-LR (shock-Plts, 3,601 ± 1,581; p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: FDPlts contribute to clot formation similar to fresh human Plts. FDPlts also attenuated vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo. Mouse WB resuscitation but not fresh human Plts attenuated vascular permeability after HS. These data suggest that the effect of FDPlts may be a suitable alternative to fresh Plts in modulating hemostasis and the endotheliopathy associated with injury.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine