Many plants regularly consumed by humans contain substances that in sufficient doses have the potential to induce neurological disease. Susceptibility varies but often includes a poor nutritional state associated with poverty and nutritional dependency on components of single plants for food. Neurological diseases associated with plant toxicity are not uncommonly first attributed to other causes, most often infectious agents. Acute and self-limiting chronic neurological diseases, as well as progressive neurodegenerative disorders, have been linked to plant-derived chemicals consumed in food. This large subject is illustrated here by (a) ackee- and lychee-associated acute hypoglycemic encephalopathy, (b) chronic motorsystem disease caused by dependency on cassava or grasspea, and (c) soursop and cycad-associated neurodegenerative disease.